Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Dutch (1) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

The Australasian barnacle originates from the waters around New Zealand. It is also known by the name New Zealand barnacle. During the Second World War, it was brought unintentionally to Europe on British warships. The animal has four plates, as opposed to the acorn barnacle which has six plates. The plates resemble a symmetric cross. When the Australasian barnacle lives in the same area as the bay barnacle, it displaces the bay barnacle. Australasian barnacles breed throughout the year, although there are peaks in May and October.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Copyright Ecomare

Source: Ecomare

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Elminius modestus is a small barnacle, 5-10 mm in diameter, characterised by having only 4 calcified shell plates. The body shape is low and conical with a large diamond shaped opercular aperture. In young barnacles the shell plates are smooth and the bottom margin of each has an indentation in the centre. The shell plates of older individuals have marked vertical ridges that give the barnacle an irregular, roughly circular margin. The young are opalescent greyish white in colour while the adults become drab greyish brown and eroded.Elminius modestus occurs naturally in Australasia and was first reported in Britain in 1946, by which time it was already widespread in the southeast of England. The first colonization, probably by shipping, was thought to be in Southampton Water, from where it spread rapidly along the coast, reaching extensive parts of the whole British mainland by a combination of natural and artificial means (Crisp, 1958). By 1972 it was common in parts of the west coast of Scotland and in 1978 it was reported in Shetland (Hiscock et al.,1978). Elminius modestus not only competes with endemic British species, particularly Balanus balanoides, but has colonized some sheltered and estuarine habitats not previously inhabited by them (Bassingdale, 1964).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 16 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 4.8

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 4.8
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

 Elminius modestus is found at all levels of the shore but is more common mid-shore and may extend to shallow sublittoral. It attaches to a wide variety of substrata including rocks, stones, shells, other crustaceans and artificial structures including ships. It is more tolerant of turbidity and reduced salinity than Semibalanus balanoides and Chthamalus species and is found in estuaries as well as on open coasts where the wave exposure is not high.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Animal / parasite / ectoparasite
adult of Hemioniscus balani ectoparasitises mantle cavity of Elminius modestus

Animal / predator
Thais lapillus is predator of Elminius modestus
Other: minor host/prey

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Elminius modestus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Elminius modestus

Elminius modestus is a species of barnacle in the family Balanidae, native to Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand, but now spread to Britain and the north west coasts of Europe.[1] It reaches a maximum size of about 10 millimetres (0.39 in) in diameter.

Description[edit]

E. modestus is a pearly grey, semi-translucent barnacle. It is composed of four distinct plates and leans a little to one side.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

E. modestus originated in Australia and was first seen in British waters, in Chichester Harbour, during the Second World War. It was believed to have arrived on the hulls of ships, or possibly the larval stages travelled in bilge water.[3] It has become very common in southern England and Wales and is spreading northwards, but the spread may be limited by the temperature of the sea. It is found on the upper middle shore and is tolerant of low salinity levels where fresh water enters the sea. It avoids exposed positions.[2] It had reached the Scottish Borders by 1960 and Shetland by 1978.[4] It is found on the Atlantic coasts of Europe from Gibraltar to Germany.[5]

Ecology[edit]

E. modestus is a suspension feeder. It has feathery appendages which beat rhythmically to draw plankton and other organic particles into the shell for consumption.[6] Eggs are laid and develop into nauplius larvae which are released into the phytoplankton. These then develop into cyprid larvae which later settle and cement themselves onto a rocky substrate.[7]

In the British Isles, E. modestus competes with Semibalanus balanoides, whereas in southern Europe it also competes with Chthamalus spp. It is particularly successful because it grows fast, tolerates reduced salinity, has a lower temperature tolerance than Chthamalus spp and a higher tolerance than Balanus spp.[8] It is also a threat to native species because it reaches maturity in its first season and can produce several broods of larvae per year. It has an extended habitat as it grows both high up the shore and in the neritic zone.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ WoRMS (2011). "Elminius modestus". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved August 17, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b John Barrett & C. M. Young (1958). Collins Pocket Guide to the Sea Shore. p. 91. 
  3. ^ D. J. Crisp (1958). "The spread of Elminius modestus Darwin in north-west Europe" (PDF). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 37 (2): 483–520. doi:10.1017/S0025315400023833. 
  4. ^ K. Hiscock, S. Hiscock & J. M. Baker (1978). "The occurrence of the barnacle Elminius modestus in Shetland". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 58 (3): 627–629. doi:10.1017/S0025315400041278. 
  5. ^ H. Barnes & M. Barnes (1966). "Ecological and zoogeographical observations on some of the common intertidal cirripedes of the coasts of the western European mainland in June-September, 1963". In Harold Barnes. Some Contemporary Studies in Marine Science. Allen & Unwin. pp. 83–105. 
  6. ^ "Shore life". Encarta Encyclopedia 2005 DVD. 
  7. ^ E. Bourget (1987). "Barnacle shells: composition, structure, and growth". In Alan J. Southward. Crustacean Issues 5: Barnacle Biology. pp. 267–285. ISBN 90-6191-628-3. 
  8. ^ H. Barnes & Margaret Barnes (1960). "Recent spread and present distribution of the barnacle Elminius modestus Darwin in north-west Europe". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 135 (1): 137–145. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1960.tb05836.x. 
  9. ^ "Elminius modestus". Marine Advice. Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved August 17, 2011. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!