Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

This frog is mainly diurnal and eats small insects which are attracted by fallen fruits. Males attract females by calling out very short notes that are composed of two even shorter clicks. Between 15 and 60 greenish-yellow eggs are laid (4) in cavities under rocks and in the trunks of dead trees (5). They hatch into tadpoles during heavy rainfall, which washes them into small pools of water (5). The tadpoles grow to a size of 28 mm and undergo metamorphosis after 45 – 65 days to take the adult form (4).
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Description

The back and sides of this frog are yellow-green, whilst the underparts are black with blue spots. The legs are green, and the hind limbs may be banded, but there is no webbing between the toes. A light stripe runs along the upper lip (2).
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Comprehensive Description

Description

M 22-25 mm, W 27-30 mm. Head, dorsum and largest (posterior) part of the flanks usually light green to yellowish. Upper surface of legs with similar colour and without dark crossbands. Anterior part of the flanks black. Distinct, white to light green frenal stripe until snout tip. Upper half of the iris golden. Ventrally black with bluish white markings. Distinct horseshoe marking on the throat.

Similar species: Typically coloured specimens are easily recognizable, but more ebenaui-like coloured specimens occur as well.

Taken with permission from Glaw and Vences (2007).

  • Andreone, F., Raxworthy, C., and Vences, M. (2008). Mantella viridis. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 21 April 2009.
  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in several localities in extreme northern Madagascar, including Fôret d’Ambre Special Reserve (D'Cruze et al. 2008), Montagne des Français, Antogombato, Andranotsymaty, Antsahampano, Ivovona, Anjiabe, Andoajampoana, Mangoaka, Antsiranana, Ankitsakalaninaombi, Daraina, Mahavavona, Joffreville, Francom and the island of Nosy Hara. There are records from 5 to 959m asl, though most records are below 300m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

Antongonbato, Montagne des Français. It is observed from sea level to 959m asl in deciduous dry forest on karst landscape. It can live in degraded habitats but requires shade and good vegetation cover (Andreone et al. 2008).

  • Andreone, F., Raxworthy, C., and Vences, M. (2008). Mantella viridis. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 21 April 2009.
  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
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Range

The green mantella is found in the Montagne des Francais in northern Madagascar, as well as in the Massif of Antogombato, south of Diego, Madagascar. It is found at elevations of 50 – 300 m above sea level (1).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is a terrestrial species of deciduous dry forest on karst landscape, usually found near temporary brooks and streams, where it breeds. It can survive in degraded habitats to some extent (see D'Cruze et al. 2007), but it needs shade and good vegetation cover. Andreone et al. (2006) mention animals being found within extended mango plantations.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Inhabits deciduous dry forest on a limestone landscape, and is usually found around temporary streams (1). It also lives in degraded habitats, with mango plantations (6).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Andreone, F., Raxworthy, C.J. & Vences, M.

Reviewer/s
Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S. & Cox, N.A.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.
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Status

The green mantella is classified as Critically Endangered (CR B2ab(iii)) on the IUCN Red List 2004 (1) and is listed on Appendix II of CITES (3).
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Population

Population
It is a common species, albeit very localized.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Habits: Adult specimens were found along (nearly dry) brooks in the forest. Some weak calling activity was recognizable in March. In captivity aggressive behaviour was observed in females and inguinal clasping has been recorded.

Call: The call consists of a series of very short notes. Each note consists of two very short clicks, with a very short interval between them. Duration of the first click is about 10 ms, duration of the second about 20 ms. The second click is more intense. Duration of the whole double-click note is about 40 ms. Frequency ranges from 2.5-6.2 kHz.

Eggs and tadpoles (from Montagne des Francais): The tadpoles, which were found in a small pool of a dry brook, are similar to other Mantella tadpoles. Total length in stage 25 is 15-18 mm, body length 5-6 mm. Eyes are directed dorsally. Tooth formula is 1/4+4//3.

Breeding takes place near temporary brooks and streams (Andreone et al. 2008).

  • Andreone, F., Raxworthy, C., and Vences, M. (2008). Mantella viridis. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 21 April 2009.
  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
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Threats

Major Threats
The main threat is habitat loss, due to the impacts of fires, selective logging and the collection of firewood, and livestock grazing; it is also affected by the subsequent permanent drying out of smaller streams following forest loss. It has been recorded in the pet trade in relatively large numbers, although this is now greatly reduced.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Endangered: extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat. It does not occur in any protected areas (though it has been recorded from a classified forest), and increased protection and maintenance of the remaining habitat is needed. Any future trade in this species should be carefully regulated. It is maintained in captivity in several facilities outside Madagascar (Andreone et al. 2008)

  • Andreone, F., Raxworthy, C., and Vences, M. (2008). Mantella viridis. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 21 April 2009.
  • Glaw, F., and Vences, M. (2007). Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Köln.
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Having suffered over-collection for the pet trade in the past, populations of green mantellas are now most threatened by habitat degradation. The green mantella is still locally abundant, but it exists in a very small range and so is at risk of extinction if its habitat is not protected from the fires, selective logging, firewood collection and livestock grazing that currently threaten it. Too much forest loss will have cumulative effects as the streams could dry out (1).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species has recently been recorded from the Fôret d’Ambre Special Reserve (D'Cruze et al. 2008). The Montagne des Français has been granted Temporary Protected Area Status (the first of three steps necessary to create a permanently protected area) (D'Cruze et al. 2007). It is listed on CITES Appendix II. Increased protection and maintenance of the remaining habitat is needed. Any future trade in this species should be carefully regulated. It is maintained in captivity in several facilities outside Madagascar. Research is needed to establish the taxonomic status of populations to the south-west of the type locality.
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Conservation

Trade regulations have successfully reduced collection of this species, but trade must continue to be carefully controlled to ensure its survival. It does not occur in any protected areas, but it is sometimes bred in captivity (1).
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Wikipedia

Green mantella

The Green Mantella (Mantella viridis) is a species of frog in the Mantellidae family. It is endemic to Madagascar. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, rivers, intermittent rivers, and heavily degraded former forest. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Description[edit]

The green mantella is a small frog. Males are 22−25 mm, females 25−30 mm. The species is common in the pet trade as a vivarium species. Some of the frogs appear more yellow in color. Its face is black with a white band around the top lip. The underside of the frog is black with blue speckles. The female species is predominantly larger with a more square snout. They are critically endangered because of the loss of habitat and over-collection for pet trade.

Habitat[edit]

Green mantella live in extreme northern Madagascar and thrive in dry lowland forest at elevations between 50 and 300 meters above sea level.

Diet[edit]

They eat small insects like ants and fruit flies. They also eat soft fruit. Green mantella require water, as most frogs do, but do not get it by drinking. Their permeable skin allows them to absorb the water.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Green Mantella Frog". Oakland Zoo. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 

Source[edit]

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