Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Vomerine teeth present. Posterior part of the tongue free and forked. Toes webbed. Omosternum and sternum ossified. Pupil of the eye horizontal. Body slender. Snout sharp. No male vocal sacs. Legs very long. Shin (knee to ankle) shorter than body by 1.46-1.86 times. When the shins are positioned perpendicularly to the body axis, the heels overlap. When the hind leg is stretched along the body, the tibio-tarsal articulation always exceeds the tip of snout. Inner metatarsal tubercle high and oval, 1.9-3.4 times shorter than the 1st toe. Flank and thigh skin smooth. Dorsal coloration yellowish, brown, greyish or rufous. chevron-shaped (^) dark glandular spot on neck. Dark spots on dorsal surface vary in number, arrangement and size. No spots on flanks. Temporal spot large. Belly white or white-pink, without pattern. Tympanum large and positioned very close to the eye. Nuptial pads on the first finger of the male during the breeding season grey to yellowish. No blue tints in male nuptial coloration. The species belongs to the 'brown frog' group of species.

  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. (1978). Dinamicheskii Polimophizm Burykh Lyagushek Fauny SSSR [Dynamic Polymorphism of the Brown Frogs of USSR Fauna]. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. and Ledentsov, A.V. (1985). ''[Ecological aspects of the postmetamorphic growth in Rana arvalis].'' Ekologicheskie Aspekty Skorosti Rosta i Razvitiya Zhivotnykh. Sverdlovsk.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is widely distributed in much of Europe and northern Turkey. Within Europe it is widespread, but it is restricted to Álava, Burgos and Navarra Provinces in Spain, the southeast coastline of Sweden and the islands of Denmark, and it is absent from Portugal, the British Isles (except the island of Jersey, where a small population is present). In addition, there is a need to confirm the presence of this species in Poland, where it is supposed to occur in the southeast. In the former Soviet Union, it is known only from the Transcarpathian Plain (including adjacent foothills and mountain slopes) of the Ukraine. In Turkey this species is found in Turkish Thrace and northern parts of Anatolia; further studies are needed to determine the distributions of Rana dalmatina and Rana macrocnemis along the southern Black Sea coastline. It occurs from sea level to elevations approaching 1,700m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

The Agile Frog is widespread in Europe, from Southern Sweden (Oland Island) through Denmark, Northern France, Northeastern and Central Germany, parts of Austria, Hungary and the south of Ukrainian Carpathians. The species inhabits the Balkan Mountains southwards to the north of Asia Minor. The species is distributed very unevenly, being absent from a large areas within the range.As a rule, the species inhabits leafed forests, consisting largely of oak and/or beech, hornbeam, ash etc. These forests often contain a thick layer of leaf litter. Reproduction occurs in well-illuminated and warm swamps in the forest or on forest edges. Such habitats are usually covered with dense herbaceous vegetation. In the south of its range, the species reproduces not only in stagnant but also in slowly running waters.

  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. (1978). Dinamicheskii Polimophizm Burykh Lyagushek Fauny SSSR [Dynamic Polymorphism of the Brown Frogs of USSR Fauna]. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. and Ledentsov, A.V. (1985). ''[Ecological aspects of the postmetamorphic growth in Rana arvalis].'' Ekologicheskie Aspekty Skorosti Rosta i Razvitiya Zhivotnykh. Sverdlovsk.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is found in glades and open sites within light deciduous woodland (oak, beech, hornbeam etc.), and less frequent in meadows and thickets. It generally it does not occur in pasture, arable areas or coniferous forests. In Spain the species is restricted to Quercus pedunculata oak forest, and is associated with wet meadows. It spawns in small wetlands (pools, fens and marshes, ditches) within forests and at their edges. High levels of larval mortality have been recorded.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rana dalmatina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
U?ur Kaya, Sergius Kuzmin, Max Sparreboom, Ismail H. Ugurtas, David Tarkhnishvili, Steven Anderson, Franco Andreone, Claudia Corti, Per Nyström, Benedikt Schmidt, Brandon Anthony, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk, Maria Ogielska, Jaime Bosch, Miguel Tejedo

Reviewer/s
Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
It is a relatively abundant species. The species is common in much of central and eastern Europe (e.g.. Hungary and Romania). In Turkey it is patchily distributed. It is scarce to uncommon in northern Europe (e.g.. Sweden, Denmark). In Spain, it is extremely rare.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Rana dalmatina is active during the first half of the day and at twilight. During the reproductive period, it is active throughout the day and night. If the frog perceives danger, it escapes by very long, 1-2 m, and high, to 1 m, leaps. Hibernation starts at the end of September - end of October and lasts until late January - March. Reproduction usually occurs in March (sometimes February) to April. Breeding choruses are not formed. Amplexus is pectoral (axillary). The clutch contains 450-1800 eggs. Eggs are deposited at night on underwater vegetation in the most open parts of the pool. Metamorphosis occurs from late June to the beginning of August (and sometimes to October). Some tadpoles overwinter. Sexual maturity is probably attained in the third year of life; the maximum known age is 7 years. Adult R. dalmatina primarily consume terrestrial insects, whereas earthworms, spiders, myriapods etc. are rarely eaten.

  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. (1978). Dinamicheskii Polimophizm Burykh Lyagushek Fauny SSSR [Dynamic Polymorphism of the Brown Frogs of USSR Fauna]. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. and Ledentsov, A.V. (1985). ''[Ecological aspects of the postmetamorphic growth in Rana arvalis].'' Ekologicheskie Aspekty Skorosti Rosta i Razvitiya Zhivotnykh. Sverdlovsk.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
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Threats

Major Threats
It is generally threatened by the drainage and eutrophication of breeding sites, development (and logging) of suitable habitat, and replacement of deciduous forest habitat with unsuitable coniferous species. It is locally threatened by road mortality during breeding migrations. Grossenbacher (in Krone et al., 1997) reported skin diseases (possibly associated with viral infection) in populations from Switzerland and northern Italy that are potentially related to declines and may be related to polluted water. It is experiencing localized declines in southwestern Europe.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

In many sites the species has declined and some populations were extinct during the last decades. Habitat alteration seems to be the main threat for this species.

In the British Isles, R. dalmatina is restricted to Jersey. The species in this region had undergone such great decline that at one time it only bred in a single pond on the island. Efforts by Jersey environmental and conservation groups have successfully reintroduced breeding populations to several locations, including newly created and formerly occupied ponds (John W. Wilkinson & John Buckley, FrogLog 2012).

  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. (1978). Dinamicheskii Polimophizm Burykh Lyagushek Fauny SSSR [Dynamic Polymorphism of the Brown Frogs of USSR Fauna]. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. and Ledentsov, A.V. (1985). ''[Ecological aspects of the postmetamorphic growth in Rana arvalis].'' Ekologicheskie Aspekty Skorosti Rosta i Razvitiya Zhivotnykh. Sverdlovsk.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is listed on Appendix II the Bern Convention and on Appendix IV of the EU Habitats Directive. This species is protected by national legislation in many countries and is recorded in several national and sub-national Red Data books and lists. It is present in many protected areas. Further research into the distribution limits of this species in Turkey is needed. Conservation initiatives involving head-starting have been undertaken for the small Jersey population which have been remarkably successful. In parts of its range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established. In Spain, it is an endangered species and there are habitat restoration and population monitoring efforts ongoing. In some parts of its range, there have been successful efforts to restore pond habitats.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

Although the frog lives in many anthropogenically changed landscapes, it seems to possess lower potential for synanthropization than many other brown frogs of the Palearctic.

  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. (1978). Dinamicheskii Polimophizm Burykh Lyagushek Fauny SSSR [Dynamic Polymorphism of the Brown Frogs of USSR Fauna]. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Ishchenko, V.G. and Ledentsov, A.V. (1985). ''[Ecological aspects of the postmetamorphic growth in Rana arvalis].'' Ekologicheskie Aspekty Skorosti Rosta i Razvitiya Zhivotnykh. Sverdlovsk.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
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Wikipedia

Agile frog

The agile frog (Rana dalmatina) is a frog in the genus Rana in the family of the true frogs.[2]

Physical description[edit]

This species is thin and has long limbs and a pointy snout. Adult males are rarely larger than 6.5 cm, while females can grow up to 8 cm. Its ventral surface is light brown, reddish-brown, or light greyish-brown with very little contrast. Triangle-shaped spots reach from the temple to the eardrum, which are dark brown. The underside of the agile frog is white without any spots. During mating season, the males often become dark brown. The hind legs are unusually long, which allow this species to jump further than other similar frogs - they have been known to jump up to two metres in distance. The pupils are horizontal. The colour of the upper third of the iris (above the pupil) is lighter and gold in coloration. The tympanum is about the size of the diameter of the eye. The gland stripes on the frog's back are not very developed and partially interrupted.

Reproduction[edit]

Typically fixed spawn clump under water

The call is a fairly quiet "rog ... rog ... rog", and can last for up to 12 seconds. They often also call under water, so the calls can only be heard from a very short distance by observers. Spawning only lasts a few days, and during this period, the males sometimes gather in large calling groups on the water surface to attracts females. In Central Europe, spawning usually occurs in the first 20 days of March, but can also be delayed, depending on the weather.

The spawn clumps consist of 450 to 1800 eggs, and are usually attached to tree branches, roots, or plant stems at depths of 5–40 centimetres (2.0–15.7 in). Therefore, they rarely sink to the bottom. Unlike the moor frog (Rana arvalis) and common frog (Rana temporaria), the agile frog does not lay its spawn all in the one clump. The diameter of a single egg, not counting the gelatinous shell, is 1.5–2.1 mm (0.059–0.083 in).

Habitat[edit]

The agile frog prefers light deciduous mixed forests with plentiful water. The open land around a forest is often also populated, as long as it is connected to the forest by shrubs. In dry, warm forests, this species often also lives far away from the water. Of the three Middle European Rana species, this frog likes warmth and dryness the most.

The agile frog can be found in France, the Channel Islands, parts of Germany, Italy, the Czech Republic, Austria, Hungary, on the Balkans, Greece, and by the Black Sea.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kaya, U. et al. (2009). "Rana dalmatina". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2013). "Rana dalmatina Fitzinger, 1839". Amphibian Species of the World 5.6, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 


This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia.
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