Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs on the Pacific slopes of the Andes in northern Ecuador (Pichincha and Cotapaxi provinces) and western Colombia (from Nariño Department to Antioquia Department). It has been recorded between 700 and 2,010m asl.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is a nocturnal species, living on vegetation, including arboreal bromeliads, in forest habitats, usually next to water sources. It prefers undisturbed habitats, but can be found on the edge of secondary forest. It breeds by direct development, and the eggs are carried in a pouch on the back of the female.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Wilmar Bolívar, Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Juan Manuel Renjifo

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Vulnerable because its Area of Occupancy is less than 2,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat, the number of locations, and the number of mature individuals in the Colombian and Ecuadorian Andes.
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Population

Population
The population status of this species across much of Ecuador is unknown. It was most recently recorded in 1996, and appears to have declined. Data from the Reserva Otonga (Pichincha Province) suggest that it is now absent from where it once occurred (L. Coloma pers. obs.). It is an uncommon species in Colombia.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The major threats are habitat loss due to agricultural development (livestock and illegal crops), logging, and human settlement, and pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops. The decline in Ecuador is unexplained and has taken place within suitable habitats, and might perhaps be related to climate change, or to chytridiomycosis (which has been recorded in Gastrotheca species in Ecuador), or to a combination of these two factors.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In Ecuador, its range overlaps with the Reserva Ecológica Los Illinizas. It occurs in several protected areas in Colombia, including Parque Nacional Natural Farallones de Cali. Further research is needed to investigate the cause of the apparent decline of this species in Ecuador.
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Wikipedia

Gastrotheca guentheri

Gastrotheca guentheri (common name: Guenther's marsupial frog, dentate marsupial frog) is a species of frog in the Hemiphractidae family. It is found in the Andes of southern Colombia and Ecuador.[2]

Gastrotheca guentheri is the only known frog with true teeth in its lower jaw. Recent studies have proposed its teeth have re-evolved after being absent for over 200 million years, challenging Dollo's law.[3] According to John Wiens, the author of this paper, re-evolution of teeth in the lower jaw may have been made easier because of the fact that most frogs have teeth in their upper jaw so there was already a way of facilitating new teeth in the lower jaw after 200 million years.[4]

Natural habitats of Gastrotheca guentheri are tropical moist forests. These frogs are nocturnal and live on vegetation, including arboreal bromeliads.[1]

This species is declining in abundance. One cause of the declines is habitat loss, but the species has also declined within suitable habitat in Ecuador, possibly because of climate change or chytridiomycosis.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bolívar, W., Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Diego Cisneros-Heredia, Juan Manuel Renjifo (2004). "Gastrotheca guentheri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Gastrotheca guentheri (Boulenger, 1882)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  3. ^ Wiens, J. J. (2011). "Re-evolution of lost mandibular teeth in frogs after more than 200 million years, and re-evaluating Dollo's law". Evolution 65 (5): 1283–1296. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01221.x. PMID 21521189.  edit
  4. ^ Sindya N. Bhanoo (8 February 2011). "A Frog Evolved to Regain the Teeth Its Ancestors Jettisoned". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
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