Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Hyla arenicolor adult frogs range from 32-57 mm in SVL. It has rough warty skin which prevents desiccation. Webbing is well developed but does not extend to the hind leg's fifth toe. Toe pads are considerably enlarged. It is distinguished from similar species by having a dark-edged light spot beneath the eye, instead of a dark bar running through the eye. Dorsal coloration is brown to gray and randomly spotted, while ventral coloration is cream to orange-yellow. This coloration aids in its ability to camouflage. When exposed to sun, the dorsal coloration changes from being normally dark to a light gray. (Stebbins 2003).

Hyla arenicolor feeds on a variety of insects, including beetles, ants, and caterpillers (Behler 1979).

Albinos have been found only in this species of Hyla. In albino frogs, the eyes have red pupils with white irises (Van Devender 1969).

  • Barber, P. H. (1999). ''Phylogeography of the Canyon Treefrog, Hyla arenicolor (Cope) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data.'' Molecular Ecology, 8(4), 547.
  • Behler, J. L. (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York.
  • Snyder, G. K. Hammerson, G. A. (1992). ''Interrelationships between water economy and thermoregulation in the Canyon Tree-frog Hyla arenicolor.'' Journal of Arid Environments, 1993(25), 321-329.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Van Devender, T. R. (1969). ''A record of albinism in the Canyon Tree Frog, Hyla arenicolor Cope.'' Herpetologica, 25(1), 69.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs from western and southeastern Colorado and southern Utah, south through Arizona and western New Mexico in the USA to northern Oaxaca in Mexico. There are also isolated populations in northeastern New Mexico and the Big Bend area of western Texas. It is found from near sea level to about 3,000m asl (Stebbins, 1985).
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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) This species occurs from western and southeastern Colorado and southern Utah, south through Arizona and western New Mexico in the United States to northern Oaxaca in Mexico. There are also isolated populations in northeastern New Mexico and the Big Bend area of western Texas. It is found from near sea level to about 3,000m (9800 ft) (Stebbins 1985).

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Distribution and Habitat

Specifically found in parts of southern and western Colorado. Isolated populations found in northeastern New Mexico and certain regions of Texas (Behler 1979).

Habitat ranges from arid environments to streambanks. Most often found in pools at the bottoms of canyons. It generally lives on the ground but can be found in trees and clinging to boulders (Stebbins 2003).

  • Barber, P. H. (1999). ''Phylogeography of the Canyon Treefrog, Hyla arenicolor (Cope) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data.'' Molecular Ecology, 8(4), 547.
  • Behler, J. L. (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York.
  • Snyder, G. K. Hammerson, G. A. (1992). ''Interrelationships between water economy and thermoregulation in the Canyon Tree-frog Hyla arenicolor.'' Journal of Arid Environments, 1993(25), 321-329.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Van Devender, T. R. (1969). ''A record of albinism in the Canyon Tree Frog, Hyla arenicolor Cope.'' Herpetologica, 25(1), 69.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 6 cm

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Type Information

Lectotype for Hyla arenicolor
Catalog Number: USNM 11410
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Sonora, U. S. and Mexican Boundary, Pinal, Arizona, United States, North America
  • Lectotype: Cope, E. D. 1866. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2. 6: 84.; Gorman, J. 1960. Herpetologica. 16 (3): 217, Figure 3.
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Paralectotype for Hyla arenicolor
Catalog Number: USNM 563886
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Sonora, U. S. and Mexican Boundary, Pinal, Arizona, United States, North America
  • Paralectotype: Cope, E. D. 1866. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2. 6: 84.; Gorman, J. 1960. Herpetologica. 16 (3): 217, Figure 3.
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Paralectotype for Hyla arenicolor
Catalog Number: USNM 563885
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Sonora, U. S. and Mexican Boundary, Pinal, Arizona, United States, North America
  • Paralectotype: Cope, E. D. 1866. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2. 6: 84.; Gorman, J. 1960. Herpetologica. 16 (3): 217, Figure 3.
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Paralectotype for Hyla arenicolor
Catalog Number: USNM 563884
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Sonora, U. S. and Mexican Boundary, Pinal, Arizona, United States, North America
  • Paralectotype: Cope, E. D. 1866. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2. 6: 84.; Gorman, J. 1960. Herpetologica. 16 (3): 217, Figure 3.
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Paralectotype for Hyla arenicolor
Catalog Number: USNM 563883
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Sonora, U. S. and Mexican Boundary, Pinal, Arizona, United States, North America
  • Paralectotype: Cope, E. D. 1866. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2. 6: 84.; Gorman, J. 1960. Herpetologica. 16 (3): 217, Figure 3.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This frog requires temporary or permanent pools in rocky arid scrub and mountains. It is found in rocky canyons and along intermittent or permanent streams. It frequents arroyos in semi-arid grassland, streams in pinon-juniper and pine-oak woodlands, and tropical scrub forest (Mexico) (Stebbins, 1985). It is primarily terrestrial, and in breeds in pools along canyon-bottom streams.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Comments: This frog requires temporary or permanent pools in rocky arid scrub and mountains in a wide range of elevations from 300 to 3,000m asl. It is found in rocky canyons and along intermittent or permanent streams. It frequents arroyos in semi-arid grassland, streams in pinon-juniper and pine-oak woodlands, and tropical scrub forest (Mexico) (Stebbins 1985). It is primarily terrestrial, and in breeds in pools along canyon-bottom streams.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Adults feed on ants, beetles, centipedes, spiders, etc. Larvae eat suspended matter, organic debris, algae, and plant tissue.

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Population Biology

Global Abundance

100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but likely exceeds 100,000.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Inactive in cold temperatures and hot, dry weather when it retreats to rock crevices. Most active at night but can be observed among rocks along stream courses diurnally.

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Reproduction

Usually breeds from April-July (possibly August) (Stebbins 1985). In Colorado, metamorphosis has been observed in late July and early August (Hammerson 1982).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hyla arenicolor

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Georgina Santos-Barrera, Geoffrey Hammerson

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Secure in most of large range in southwestern North America.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

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Population

Population
The total adult population size is unknown, but this species is common in some areas. The population is believed to be stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: No quantitative data but likely stable.

Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%

Comments: Likely relatively stable in extent of occurrence, probably less than 25% decline in population size, area of occurrence, and number/condition of occurrences.

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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Breeding period ranges from March to July but can be extended due to insufficient rainfall. (Stebbins 2003).

Vocal calls are hollow, nasal, and explosive, lasting only 1-3 seconds (Behler 1979).

  • Barber, P. H. (1999). ''Phylogeography of the Canyon Treefrog, Hyla arenicolor (Cope) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data.'' Molecular Ecology, 8(4), 547.
  • Behler, J. L. (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York.
  • Snyder, G. K. Hammerson, G. A. (1992). ''Interrelationships between water economy and thermoregulation in the Canyon Tree-frog Hyla arenicolor.'' Journal of Arid Environments, 1993(25), 321-329.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Van Devender, T. R. (1969). ''A record of albinism in the Canyon Tree Frog, Hyla arenicolor Cope.'' Herpetologica, 25(1), 69.
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Threats

Major Threats
This species has well adapted populations along its wide range.
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Degree of Threat: Low

Comments: No major pervasive threats.

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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Overcollection from humans. It is vulnerable due to exposure while basking on rocks (Stebbins 2003).

  • Barber, P. H. (1999). ''Phylogeography of the Canyon Treefrog, Hyla arenicolor (Cope) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data.'' Molecular Ecology, 8(4), 547.
  • Behler, J. L. (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York.
  • Snyder, G. K. Hammerson, G. A. (1992). ''Interrelationships between water economy and thermoregulation in the Canyon Tree-frog Hyla arenicolor.'' Journal of Arid Environments, 1993(25), 321-329.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Van Devender, T. R. (1969). ''A record of albinism in the Canyon Tree Frog, Hyla arenicolor Cope.'' Herpetologica, 25(1), 69.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in a wide variety of habitats and part of its range includes Biosphere Reserves and Natural parks.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

Have been used in experiments to test the thermoregulation relating to how its skin manages water uptake (Snyder and Hammerson 1992).

  • Barber, P. H. (1999). ''Phylogeography of the Canyon Treefrog, Hyla arenicolor (Cope) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data.'' Molecular Ecology, 8(4), 547.
  • Behler, J. L. (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York.
  • Snyder, G. K. Hammerson, G. A. (1992). ''Interrelationships between water economy and thermoregulation in the Canyon Tree-frog Hyla arenicolor.'' Journal of Arid Environments, 1993(25), 321-329.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Van Devender, T. R. (1969). ''A record of albinism in the Canyon Tree Frog, Hyla arenicolor Cope.'' Herpetologica, 25(1), 69.
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Wikipedia

Canyon tree frog

The canyon tree frog (Hyla arenicolor) is a species of tree frog native to the rocky plateau areas of southern United States, primarily in New Mexico and Arizona, but it also ranges to Utah, Texas, and Colorado, and as far south as the Mexican states of Michoacán, México, Guanajuato, Guerrero, and Oaxaca.[2]

Description[edit]

Canyon tree frogs grow to 5.0–5.5 cm (2.0–2.2 in) in length, and are typically brown, grey-brown, or grey-green in color, often with darker-colored blotching. They can vary considerably, but usually match the soil or rock coloration of their native habitats to serve as camouflage. Those from limestone habitats are lighter colored, and those from regions composed mostly of granite can even be pink in coloration. Most have bright yellow in their groin regions, and faded banding on their legs.

Behavior[edit]

Canyon tree frogs are mostly nocturnal and carnivorous. They are typically found in semiarid, rocky habitats near a permanent water source. Breeding occurs during the spring rains, and large, floating egg masses of 100 or more eggs are laid on the water. During periods of low rainfall, the frogs will take refuge in rock crevices.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Georgina Santos-Barrera, Geoffrey Hammerson (2010). "Hyla arenicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Hyla arenicolor Cope, 1866". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
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