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Overview

Brief Summary

During the hottest part of the day, British toads protect themselves from dehydration by burrowing themselves 10 centimeters deep in dune sand. As long as there is water in the area for reproduction, they are found on warm, open, sandy terrain just about all over the Netherlands. They also lay their eggs in brackish water. This makes the dune regions along the coast and the islands a very suitable environment for this species. British toads are fast jumpers and good climbers. They eat insects. Their melodious call can be heard on warm spring evenings.
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Biology

Natterjack toads emerge from hibernation later than frogs and common toads. Depending on the weather this can be as early as March and as late as June. The males make their surprisingly loud croaking call in the afternoon and evening and often after rain. Shortly after emerging they begin their breeding cycle. Mating takes place in sun-warmed ponds and then males and females leave the water separately. Spawning occurs in shallow water, each female producing from 1500 to 7500 eggs. These hatch in about a week and the tadpoles take a further 3 - 8 weeks to metamorphose into toadlets. Adults retreat into burrows during warm weather and emerge at night to feed on moths, woodlice and other insects. Along their coastal range, they have been known to follow the strand-line to find food such as sandhoppers and other marine invertebrates. Hibernation takes place in burrows, usually excavated by the toad, but they are known to use the burrows of other animals such as rabbits, rodents and even sand martins.
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Description

The chief distinguishing feature of the natterjack is the yellow stripe down its back. Shorter hind legs also tell the natterjack toad apart from the common toad and it has a tendency to run instead of hopping or walking, which is why it is sometimes called the running toad.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

Parotoids behind the eyes are prominent. Pupil of the eye is horizontal. Tympanic membrane and male guttural resonator. Subarticular tubercles on the inner surface of toes paired. Internal edge of the tarsus with longitudinal skin fold. Tip of the 4th finger does not reach the 1st articulation of 3rd finger. Dorsal skin tuberculate, grayish-olive in color with more or less dark spots and light narrow middorsal line. Belly light. Sexual dimorphism similar to that in the Green Toad (Bufo viridis).

The toad belongs to the group of green toads (Bufo viridis complex).

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Beebee, T. J. C. (1983). The Natterjack Toad. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Gasc, J. P. , Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Dolmen, D., Grossenbacher,K., Haffner, P., Lescure, J., Martens, H., Martinez Rica, J. P.,Maurin, H., Oliveira, M. E., Sofianidou, T. S., Vaith, M., and Zuiderwijk, A. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Grosse, W.-R. (1994). ''Biologie und Okologie der Kreuzkrote.'' Berichte des Landesamtes amt für Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt, 14, 1-95.
  • Gruodis, S., Zaune, I. and Vilnitis, V. (1986). ''Present situation of the investigation of Running Toad (Bufo calamita Laurenti) in the Eastern Baltics.'' Okhrana. Ekologiya i Etologiya Zhivotnykh, Riga, 73-96.
  • Korky, J. K., and Webb, R. G. (1999). ''Resurvey, biogeography and conservation of the Natterjack Toad Bufo calamita Laurenti (Anura: Bufonidae) in the Republic of Ireland.'' Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society, (23), 2-52.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Seigel, R. A. and Dodd, C.K., Jr. (2001). ''Translocations of amphibians: proven management method or experimental technique?'' Conservation Biology, 16(2), 552-554.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in southern, western and northern Europe, ranging from Portugal and Spain, north to Denmark, southern Sweden, and as far east as western Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia and Estonia. There are isolated populations in southwestern Ireland and scattered parts of the United Kingdom (north to southwestern Scotland). It occurs from sea level to almost 2,540 m asl (in Spain).
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Distribution and Habitat

The species lives in the Southwestern and Central Europe: Portugal, Spain, France, Southwestern Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Austria near the Czech border, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Western Ukraine, Byelorussia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia (northwards to Tallin City), Western Russia (Kaliningrad Province), Denmark and Sweden.

Bufo calamita inhabits mainly open, well-warmed landscapes with light, sandy soils. There it lives in sand dunes, glades of pine forests, gardens, parks, fields, sand and gravel quarries and meadows. In the daytime it hides in heaps of stones, in sandy soil and under debris. Reproduction takes place in shallow, well-warmed ponds, puddles and ditches, including those with admixture of salt water on the shore of the Baltic Sea.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Beebee, T. J. C. (1983). The Natterjack Toad. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Gasc, J. P. , Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Dolmen, D., Grossenbacher,K., Haffner, P., Lescure, J., Martens, H., Martinez Rica, J. P.,Maurin, H., Oliveira, M. E., Sofianidou, T. S., Vaith, M., and Zuiderwijk, A. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Grosse, W.-R. (1994). ''Biologie und Okologie der Kreuzkrote.'' Berichte des Landesamtes amt für Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt, 14, 1-95.
  • Gruodis, S., Zaune, I. and Vilnitis, V. (1986). ''Present situation of the investigation of Running Toad (Bufo calamita Laurenti) in the Eastern Baltics.'' Okhrana. Ekologiya i Etologiya Zhivotnykh, Riga, 73-96.
  • Korky, J. K., and Webb, R. G. (1999). ''Resurvey, biogeography and conservation of the Natterjack Toad Bufo calamita Laurenti (Anura: Bufonidae) in the Republic of Ireland.'' Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society, (23), 2-52.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Seigel, R. A. and Dodd, C.K., Jr. (2001). ''Translocations of amphibians: proven management method or experimental technique?'' Conservation Biology, 16(2), 552-554.
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Range

Natterjack toads are found across much of western Europe. Britain marks the western edge of its range but they have never been widespread. In the UK the largest concentration of populations is in the north-west coast of England with other colonies found in East Anglia, Dorset, Hampshire, Surrey and Staffordshire, the Solway coast and North Wales. Natterjacks also occur in south-west Ireland where it is the only native toad.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is generally found in open and unshaded light sandy soils of coastal dunes, lowland heaths, semi-desert, high mountains, pine forest glades, gardens, parks, agricultural fields, sand and gravel quarries and meadows. In the daytime these animals hide in heaps of stones, in sandy soil and under debris. Spawning, followed by a short larval development period, takes place in sunny shallow temporary pools and lagoons. This is a pioneering species in much of southern Europe, sometimes temporarily colonizing new ponds; it is very much less adaptable in northern Europe.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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This species is confined to places characterised by light, sandy soils and warm, shallow ponds, often near the coast. Sand dune systems, salt marshes and lowland heathland are its main habitat types.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bufo calamita

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Epidalea calamita

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Pedro Beja, Sergius Kuzmin, Trevor Beebee, Mathieu Denoël, Benedikt Schmidt, David Tarkhnishvili, Natalia Ananjeva, Nikolai Orlov, Per Nyström, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk, Maria Ogielska, Jaime Bosch, Claude Miaud, Miguel Tejedo, Miguel Lizana, Iñigo Martínez-Solano

Reviewer/s
Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because the total population is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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Status

Endangered in the UK. Fully protected by schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981, listed under Appendix II of the Bern Convention and Annex IV of the EC Habitats Directive.
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Population

Population
The species is locally abundant across much of its range, especially in southern Europe. It is much more localized and is declining in the northern parts of its range (e.g., in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and Estonia). While generally declining in Poland, a large breeding population of about 500 individuals was recorded in 2002 in the Slowinski National Park. It is considered generally rare in eastern parts of its range.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Populations are not usually very large. However, in some places the density reaches 200 individuals per hectare. The populations sometimes reach high densities in agricultural landscapes. For example, in the fields of central Byelorussia 7 specimens per 10 m2 have been censused.

Hibernation occurs from September - October to March - May in the same sites where it hides in summer. Otherwise, the toad buries itself in the soil. Reproduction occurs in different months, in dependence on the latitude. Breeding choruses reach maximum intensity in the evening. The mating call differs from that in the Green Toad (B. viridis). Amplexus is pectoral. The clutch contains 2800-4000 eggs deposited in two strings of 1-2 m length. Metamorphosis occurs usually in summer, but cases of larval overwintering are known. The mass appearance of newly metamorphosed toadlets is typical. Adult age may attain 17 years. The diet consists mainly of crawling invertebrates (ants, beetles etc.); mirmecophagy is typical, like in other congeneric species.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Beebee, T. J. C. (1983). The Natterjack Toad. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Gasc, J. P. , Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Dolmen, D., Grossenbacher,K., Haffner, P., Lescure, J., Martens, H., Martinez Rica, J. P.,Maurin, H., Oliveira, M. E., Sofianidou, T. S., Vaith, M., and Zuiderwijk, A. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Grosse, W.-R. (1994). ''Biologie und Okologie der Kreuzkrote.'' Berichte des Landesamtes amt für Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt, 14, 1-95.
  • Gruodis, S., Zaune, I. and Vilnitis, V. (1986). ''Present situation of the investigation of Running Toad (Bufo calamita Laurenti) in the Eastern Baltics.'' Okhrana. Ekologiya i Etologiya Zhivotnykh, Riga, 73-96.
  • Korky, J. K., and Webb, R. G. (1999). ''Resurvey, biogeography and conservation of the Natterjack Toad Bufo calamita Laurenti (Anura: Bufonidae) in the Republic of Ireland.'' Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society, (23), 2-52.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Seigel, R. A. and Dodd, C.K., Jr. (2001). ''Translocations of amphibians: proven management method or experimental technique?'' Conservation Biology, 16(2), 552-554.
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Threats

Major Threats
The main threats to this species are loss of specialized habitats (such as heaths and dunes) by natural encroachment of scrub and woodland; afforestation, acidification of breeding pools, agricultural development, infilling of breeding sites (such as temporary pools and sand and gravel quarries); increased mechanization of sand and gravel extraction and infrastructure development for tourism. In some parts of its range (e.g. in UK and Spain) chytridiomycosis is a threat. The species is considered vulnerable to climate change, particularly in southern Europe.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Many populations of this species are decline because of anthropogenic pressure, primarily alteration of its specialized habitats: afforestation of heathlands and their reclamation for agriculture, acidification of breeding ponds due to polluted rains, use of coastal dunes for holiday industry. There have been some translocation projects for Bufo calamita in the UK. The translocation projects show signs of sucess. This was a result of coupling the reintroduction effort with large scale habitat restoration and maintenance effort.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Beebee, T. J. C. (1983). The Natterjack Toad. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Gasc, J. P. , Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Dolmen, D., Grossenbacher,K., Haffner, P., Lescure, J., Martens, H., Martinez Rica, J. P.,Maurin, H., Oliveira, M. E., Sofianidou, T. S., Vaith, M., and Zuiderwijk, A. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Grosse, W.-R. (1994). ''Biologie und Okologie der Kreuzkrote.'' Berichte des Landesamtes amt für Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt, 14, 1-95.
  • Gruodis, S., Zaune, I. and Vilnitis, V. (1986). ''Present situation of the investigation of Running Toad (Bufo calamita Laurenti) in the Eastern Baltics.'' Okhrana. Ekologiya i Etologiya Zhivotnykh, Riga, 73-96.
  • Korky, J. K., and Webb, R. G. (1999). ''Resurvey, biogeography and conservation of the Natterjack Toad Bufo calamita Laurenti (Anura: Bufonidae) in the Republic of Ireland.'' Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society, (23), 2-52.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Seigel, R. A. and Dodd, C.K., Jr. (2001). ''Translocations of amphibians: proven management method or experimental technique?'' Conservation Biology, 16(2), 552-554.
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Natterjack toads have never been common in the UK and loss of their heathland and sand dune habitats and the drying up of suitable ponds has contributed to their decline. The toad is now severely threatened across much of its European range.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention and on Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive, and is protected by national and sub national legislation throughout much of its range. The species is listed in many regional, national and sub-national Red Data Books and Lists, and is present in many protected areas. A re-introduction program in the UK has successfully established at least six, and perhaps quite a few more populations (Denton, et al. 1997; Zippel 2005).
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Conservation

The natterjack toad is the subject of a Biodiversity Species Action Plan and most of their UK sites are now protected, some as nature reserves. Through English Nature's Species Recovery Programme, work has focused on maintaining suitable ponds and, where possible, constructing new ones. New ponds must share the characteristics of naturally occurring ones. They must be shallow in order to warm up swiftly during the day and have gently sloping sides to enable the adults and toadlets to climb out. Re-introduction programmes have also begun in order to conserve this unusual amphibian. Natterjack toads are fully protected by law in the UK and it is illegal to capture, kill, disturb of injure the animals or to destroy or damage their breeding sites or resting places.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

Negative effects of habitat alteration by humans on the toad populations were indicated above. However, in some places (e.g., in Byelorussia) its number increases in some agricultural lands where the toads can be seen breeding in catchment ponds. The toad does not avoid anthropogenic landscapes, but usually its abundance there is not high.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Beebee, T. J. C. (1983). The Natterjack Toad. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Gasc, J. P. , Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Dolmen, D., Grossenbacher,K., Haffner, P., Lescure, J., Martens, H., Martinez Rica, J. P.,Maurin, H., Oliveira, M. E., Sofianidou, T. S., Vaith, M., and Zuiderwijk, A. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Grosse, W.-R. (1994). ''Biologie und Okologie der Kreuzkrote.'' Berichte des Landesamtes amt für Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt, 14, 1-95.
  • Gruodis, S., Zaune, I. and Vilnitis, V. (1986). ''Present situation of the investigation of Running Toad (Bufo calamita Laurenti) in the Eastern Baltics.'' Okhrana. Ekologiya i Etologiya Zhivotnykh, Riga, 73-96.
  • Korky, J. K., and Webb, R. G. (1999). ''Resurvey, biogeography and conservation of the Natterjack Toad Bufo calamita Laurenti (Anura: Bufonidae) in the Republic of Ireland.'' Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society, (23), 2-52.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Seigel, R. A. and Dodd, C.K., Jr. (2001). ''Translocations of amphibians: proven management method or experimental technique?'' Conservation Biology, 16(2), 552-554.
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Wikipedia

Natterjack toad

The natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita, formerly Bufo calamita) is a toad native to sandy and heathland areas of Europe. Adults are 60–70 mm in length and are distinguished from common toads by a yellow line down the middle of the back, and parallel paratoid glands. They have relatively short legs, and this gives them a distinctive gait, contrasting with the hopping movement of many other toad species.

Natterjacks have a very loud and distinctive mating call, amplified by the single vocal sac found under the chin of the male.

Life history[edit]

Natterjack Toads calling
Egg strings
PuddleWithTadpoles
A very young natterjack
A slightly older natterjack, though still not fully grown

Natterjacks live for up to 15 years and feed on insects, worms and small reptiles. At night they move around open terrain with sparse vegetation, and in loose sand their tracks can often be seen. They move considerable distances each night, enabling the species to colonize new habitats very quickly.

Reproduction[edit]

The natterjack toad spawns between the end of April and July, laying strings of eggs in shallow, warm pools. Because the natterjack toad is often present in low numbers, its loud mating calls are important so that the sexes can find each other.

For natterjacks, pools need to have a very slight slope with sparse vegetation on the banks and in the water. As such pools are often temporary, sometimes the tadpoles die when the pools dry out. The natterjack compensates for that risk by mating over an extended period each summer. Thus in September the age of the juveniles can vary from a month to three months. It appears that the early breeders are not the same individuals as the toads that reproduce later in the season.

Distribution[edit]

Populations of the natterjack extend through 17 European countries.[2] In the British Isles the toad is almost completely confined to coastal sites. The natterjack is the only species of toad native to Ireland. It is found on the Dingle peninsula and at Derrynane in County Kerry and also in County Wexford where it was introduced to a dune site.[2][3]

In mainland Europe, particularly in the southern part of its range, it lives inland in a variety of habitats.

Conservation[edit]

UK[edit]

In the UK the threatened status of the species resulted in the national Biodiversity Action Plan designating it as one of three protected amphibians. Reasons for its threatened status include:

In England, the toad's sand dune habitat is protected by a number of National Nature Reserves. For example in the north-west there are reserves at Hoylake, Ainsdale Sand Dunes,[4] North Walney and Sandscale Haws. In Scotland, where the species is confined to the Solway Firth, there is a reserve at Caerlaverock. In Wales the species became extinct in the twentieth century, but has been reintroduced.[5]

Ireland[edit]

To reverse habitat loss the National Parks and Wildlife Service has created ponds for the species with some funding from the Heritage Council.[2]

In fiction[edit]

  • The natterjack is a primary character in the book The Time Garden by Edward Eager. In it, the natterjack is portrayed as a magical creature who understands the laws of magic and time and assists the children on their adventures
  • Natterjack is a character in the CBeebies show Kerwhizz

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beja, P. et al. (2008). "Epidalea calamita". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c Viney, M. (4 April 2011). "Here's what biodiversity has done for us". Archived from the original on 20 October 2011. 
  3. ^ Korky, J.K. 2008. Notes on the 2007 breeding season of the Natterjack Toad Epidalea calamita Laurenti (Anura: Bufonidae) in Ireland. Bull. Ir. biogeog. Soc. No 32:21 - 31.
  4. ^ "North Merseyside Biodiversity Action Plan - Natterjack Toad" (PDF). Archived from the original on 3 August 2014. 
  5. ^ "Natterjack toads return to North Wales". 11 June 2001. Archived from the original on 3 August 2014. Toads from Merseyside have re-populated former strongholds in sand dunes around Talacre, with the help of The Herpetological Conservation Trust. 
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