Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This Australian endemic occurs in the southeastern corner of South Australia into western Victoria. It occurs from 50-400m asl. The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 362,000km2
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Distribution and Habitat

South-eastern corner of South Australia into western Victoria.The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 362000 km2

  • Barker, J., Grigg, G. C., and Tyler, M. J. (1995). A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, New South Wales.
  • Moore, J.A. (1961). ''Frogs of eastern New South Wales.'' Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History , 121(3), 151-386.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species occurs in a variety of habitats encompassing those with moderate amounts of water to deserts, including open grassland, woodland. It appears only after heavy rains. It breeds in autumn or winter and males call whilst floating in static water. They lay approximately 1,000 eggs in a chain entwined with submerged vegetation.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Associations

Vertebrate Associates on Kangaroo Island, Australia

The most notable mammal present is the endemic Kangaroo Island Kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus), the icon for whom the island was named upon European discovery in 1802. A smaller marsupial present on the island is the Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii). An endemic dasyurid is the Critically Endangered Kangaroo Island Dunnart (Sminthopsis aitkeni), which is found only in the west of the island in Eucalyptus remota/E. cosmophylla open low mallee, E. baxteri low woodland or E. baxteri/E. remota low open woodland. The Common Brush-tailed Possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is a widespread folivore native to Australia.

Monotremes are also represented on the island. There is also an introduced population of the Duck-billed Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the western part of the island in Flinders Chase National Park. The Short-beaked Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is also found moderately widespread on Kangaroo Island.

Chiroptera species on Kangaroo Island include the Yellow-bellied Pouched Bat (Saccolaimus flaviventris), which species is rather widespread in Australia and also occurs in Papua New Guinea. Australia's largest molossid, the White-striped Free-tail Bat (Tadarida australis) is found on Kangaroo Island. Another bat found on the island is the Southern Forest Bat (Eptesicus regulus), a species endemic to southern Australia (including Tasmania).

Several anuran species are found on Kangaroo island: Brown Tree Frog (Litoria ewingii), Spotted Marsh Frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis), Painted Spadefoot Frog (Neobatrachus pictus), Brown Toadlet (Pseudophryne bibroni) and Brown Froglet (Crinia signifera).

The Heath Monitor (Varanus rosenbergi ) is a lizard that grows up to a metre in length, preying on smaller reptiles, juvenile birds and eggs; it is frequently observed on warmer days basking in the sunlight or scavenging on roadkill. The Black Tiger Snake (Notechis ater) is found on Kangaroo Island. Another reptile particularly associated with this locale is the Kangaroo Island Copperhead (Austrelaps labialis).

The Glossy Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami) is found on the island, especially in the western part, where its preferred food, fruit of the Drooping Sheoak, is abundant. The Kangaroo Island Emu (Dromaius baudinianus) became extinct during the 1820s from over-hunting and habitat destruction due to burning.

Marine mammals that are observed on the island include the Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) and New Zealand Fur Seal (Arctocephalus forsteri), each species of which is native to Kangaroo Island, and abundant at Admiral's Arch as well as at Seal Bay.

Kangaroo Island is not so adversely impacted by alien species grazers as parts of the mainland. No rabbit species are present on the island, and introduced (but escaped) Domestic Goats (Capra hircus) and pigs (Sus scrofa) have generated only minor issues. However, a Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population introduced to the island in the 1920s has caused significant damage to certain woodland communities, especially to Manna Gum trees.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Murray Littlejohn, Peter Robertson, Graeme Gillespie, Frank Lemckert

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because its population is not believed to be in decline at present.

History
  • 2002
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
It is an uncommon species.

Population Trend
Stable
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

A variety of habitats encompassing those with moderate amounts of water to deserts. Open grassland, woodland. Appears only after heavy rains.Breed in autumn or winter and males call whilst floating in static water. Lay approximately 1000 eggs in a chain entwined with submerged vegetation.

  • Barker, J., Grigg, G. C., and Tyler, M. J. (1995). A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, New South Wales.
  • Moore, J.A. (1961). ''Frogs of eastern New South Wales.'' Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History , 121(3), 151-386.
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Threats

Major Threats
Agriculture can be a threat to the species' habitat in some parts of its range.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Widespread. No apparent significant threats or any declines and extent of occurrence > 20,000km2.

Threats
None known.

Conservation Measures
None in place.

  • Barker, J., Grigg, G. C., and Tyler, M. J. (1995). A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, New South Wales.
  • Moore, J.A. (1961). ''Frogs of eastern New South Wales.'' Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History , 121(3), 151-386.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The range of the species includes several protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Painted burrowing frog

The Painted Burrowing Frog (Neobatrachus pictus) is a species of burrowing frog native to western Victoria, eastern South Australia and southern New South Wales. They are also one of six species of frog which inhabit Kangaroo Island.

Contents

Physical description

The Painted Burrowing Frog is a moderate sized plump frog, reaching 55 mm in length. It is grey to yellow above with brown, olive or green patches. There is sometimes a thin, paler stripe running down the back. The belly is white. The rear toes are partially webbed and the metatarsal tubercles (shovel like structures on the heel of the foot to assist with burrowing) are completely black. The pupil is a vertical slit when contracted, and the iris is silver to gold.

Ecology and behaviour

Painted Burrowing Frogs inhabit waterholes, dams or pools of watercourses in woodland, grassland, and cleared areas. Males make an elongated trilling sound while floating in water after heavy rains, mainly in winter and autumn. Like other Neobatrachus the species is an adapted burrower and will often spend periods of time underground to avoid drought conditions.

Eggs are laid as loosely adherent clumps which may break apart. Tadpoles are large and reach about 78 mm (at about stage 35). Development takes about 4 to 7 months and metamorphs are often observed from September to November.

When threatened, this species will sometimes rear up all its legs, inflating its body to appear larger to discourage some predators.

It is an uncommon species being threatened with habitat loss and is classified as endangered in New South Wales.

Similar species

It is similar to other species of Neobatrachus, particularly the Sudell's Frog (N. sudelli) and the Trilling Frog (N. centralis), from which it is distinguished by lack of baggy skin around the groin and metatarsal colouring respectively.

References

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