Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Atelopus andinus are slender toads with type male of this species reach 28 mm and type female 34.9 mm in terms of total length. The head is approximately as long as it is wide. Total leg length is slightly shorter than snout vent length. And the foot is about a third of the snout vent length. Their skin is highly granular with a spiny texture that is concentrated on their eyelids, dorsolatera area, and posterior end. The limbs are less granular. Otherwise the description is similar to that of Atelopus spumarius (Rivero 1968).

Atelopus andinuscan be differentiated from other Atelopus species by its grandular skin and color pattern. Specifically, Atelopus andinus is differentiated from Atelopus spumarius by having more dense tubercles, especially on the eyelid, dorsolateral area, and posterior end. Additionally, the dorsolateral band and dorsal spots are tan instead of ranging from green to green-yellow in Atelopus spumarius (Rivero 1968).

Atelopus andinus has a black dorsum with a tan dorsolateral band and tan dorsal spots (Rivero 1968). They exhibit bright colors, which serve as visual warnings that these frogs do secrete toxins in their skin (Lotters 2003).

The species authority is: Rivero, J.A. 1968. More on the Atelopus (Amphibia, Salientia) from western South America.Caribbean Journal of Science: 19-29.Atelopus andinus was originally described as a subspecies to Atelopus spumarius (Rivero 1968).

  • Duellman, W.E., Lynch, J.D. (1969). ''Description of Atelopus Tadpoles and Their Relevance to the Atelopoid Classication.'' Herpetologica, 25(4), 231-240.
  • Lotters, S. (2003). ''On the Systematics of the Harlequin Frogs (Amphibia: Bufonidae: Atelopus) From Amazonia. III: A New, Remarkably Dimorphic Species From the Cordillera Azul, Peru.'' Salamandra, 39(3/4), 169-180.
  • Lötters, Stefan, Salas, Antonio, Angulo, Ariadne, Icochea, Javier, Reynolds, Robert, and La Marca Enrique 2004. Atelopus andinus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 11 April 2014.
  • Rivero, J.A. (1968). ''More on the Atelopus (Amphibia, Salientia) from western South America.'' Caribbean Journal of Science, 8(1-2), 19-29.
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Distribution

Distribution and Habitat

Atelopus andinus species is found in the upper the Río Pisqui, (Departamento Loreto), Río Biabo Valley (northern versant of the Cordillera Azul) (Departamento de San Martín), and Río Cachiyacu (on the border of Departamentos San Martín and Loreto), Peru. The toad’s recorded altitudinal range is between 1,000 - 2,000 m. This is a terrestrial species that inhabits submontane tropical forests. Breeding is thought to take place in streams. This species is thought to be heavily affected by habitat change, therefore it is unlikely to be found in altered or degraded habitats (Lotters et al. 2004).

  • Duellman, W.E., Lynch, J.D. (1969). ''Description of Atelopus Tadpoles and Their Relevance to the Atelopoid Classication.'' Herpetologica, 25(4), 231-240.
  • Lotters, S. (2003). ''On the Systematics of the Harlequin Frogs (Amphibia: Bufonidae: Atelopus) From Amazonia. III: A New, Remarkably Dimorphic Species From the Cordillera Azul, Peru.'' Salamandra, 39(3/4), 169-180.
  • Lötters, Stefan, Salas, Antonio, Angulo, Ariadne, Icochea, Javier, Reynolds, Robert, and La Marca Enrique 2004. Atelopus andinus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 11 April 2014.
  • Rivero, J.A. (1968). ''More on the Atelopus (Amphibia, Salientia) from western South America.'' Caribbean Journal of Science, 8(1-2), 19-29.
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Range Description

This species is restricted to the upper Río Biabo Valley (northern versant of the Cordillera Azul) (Departamento de San Martín), the Río Pisqui, (Departamento Loreto), and Río Cachiyacu (on the border of Departamentos San Martín and Loreto), Peru. Its recorded altitudinal range is 1,000-2,000m asl.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is a terrestrial species restricted to submontane tropical forest. Breeding is thought to take place in streams. This species is presumed to be susceptible to habitat change and is therefore not expected to occur in any modified or degraded habitats

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
A3ce

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Stefan Lötters, Antonio Salas, Ariadne Angulo, Javier Icochea, Robert Reynolds, Enrique La Marca

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Critically Endangered because of a population decline, projected to be more than 50% over the next 10 years, inferred from the possible impact of chytridiomycosis on this species.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Atelopus andinus is diurnal. When these frogs lay eggs, they come out in stringed clusters that are unpigmented in torrential streams. Based on the study of other Atelopus tadpoles, it could be likely that tadpoles of this species would possess a large ventral mouth, suctorial disk, a median anal tube, and breathe by using buccal pumping. (Duellman and Lynch 1969). These frogs prey primarily on small insects and other small organisms (Lotters 2003).

  • Duellman, W.E., Lynch, J.D. (1969). ''Description of Atelopus Tadpoles and Their Relevance to the Atelopoid Classication.'' Herpetologica, 25(4), 231-240.
  • Lotters, S. (2003). ''On the Systematics of the Harlequin Frogs (Amphibia: Bufonidae: Atelopus) From Amazonia. III: A New, Remarkably Dimorphic Species From the Cordillera Azul, Peru.'' Salamandra, 39(3/4), 169-180.
  • Lötters, Stefan, Salas, Antonio, Angulo, Ariadne, Icochea, Javier, Reynolds, Robert, and La Marca Enrique 2004. Atelopus andinus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 11 April 2014.
  • Rivero, J.A. (1968). ''More on the Atelopus (Amphibia, Salientia) from western South America.'' Caribbean Journal of Science, 8(1-2), 19-29.
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Population

Population
There is no information on its current population status, but it has been seen as recently as 2004 near Iquitos.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

The main threats to Atelopus andinus species are habitat degradation, destruction, and disease. Currently the population is declining. This species is present in the Parque Nacional Cordillera Azul. A disease management program is likely needed for successful conservation due to this species vulnerability to chytridiomycosis (Lotters et al. 2004).

  • Duellman, W.E., Lynch, J.D. (1969). ''Description of Atelopus Tadpoles and Their Relevance to the Atelopoid Classication.'' Herpetologica, 25(4), 231-240.
  • Lotters, S. (2003). ''On the Systematics of the Harlequin Frogs (Amphibia: Bufonidae: Atelopus) From Amazonia. III: A New, Remarkably Dimorphic Species From the Cordillera Azul, Peru.'' Salamandra, 39(3/4), 169-180.
  • Lötters, Stefan, Salas, Antonio, Angulo, Ariadne, Icochea, Javier, Reynolds, Robert, and La Marca Enrique 2004. Atelopus andinus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 11 April 2014.
  • Rivero, J.A. (1968). ''More on the Atelopus (Amphibia, Salientia) from western South America.'' Caribbean Journal of Science, 8(1-2), 19-29.
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Major Threats
There are no reports of chytridiomycosis impacting this Atelopus species, but it is presumed to be susceptible to this pathogen, which is now causing amphibian declines in northern Peru. It is possible that populations of this species at lower altitudes might be able to survive an outbreak of the disease.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is present in the Parque Nacional Cordillera Azul. Given the susceptibility of this species to chytridiomycosis, successful conservation measures are likely to require some form of disease management programme and the maintenance of captive populations.
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Wikipedia

Andes stubfoot toad

The Andes stubfoot toad, Atelopus andinus, is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family endemic to Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, and rivers.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lötters, S., Salas, A., Angulo, A., Monteza, J.I., Reynolds, R. & La Marca, E. (2004). "Atelopus andinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 


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