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Overview

Brief Summary

Diagnosis A frog with stocky body but relatively long limbs; extremely glandular dorsal skin; high, rounded parotoid glands; fingers free, without expansions at their tips; toes broadly webbed; a well-developed gland on the forearm ; general color mottled grayish brown, with darker spots corresponding to the elevated glands.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

Telmatobufo bullocki is a stocky, toad-like frog with long, slender legs and webbed toes. Adults are 61.8 - 83.0 mm snout-vent length (Formas 2001). The digit tips are pointed, not dilated into discs, and unwebbed. The dorsal skin is covered in raised, rounded glands. Prominent oval parotoid glands are present just behind the eyes. Ventral skin is smooth. The tadpoles are morphologically adapted to life in fast-moving rivers and streams and have a wide ventral mouth and a paddle-shaped, robustly muscular tail fin (Formas 1988).

Telmatobufo bullocki has an interocular yellow band, distinguishing it from the other two species, Telmatobufo australis and T. venustus. Other diagnostic characteristics include: "…developed postfemoral skin ridge, thick tarsal fold, dorsal skin attached to the body [and a] vertical pupil" (Donoso et al. 2010). Tadpoles can be distinguished from tadpoles of Telmatobufo venustus by having 2 upper and 3 lower rows of papillae (Formas 1988).

In life, adults of this species are mottled grayish brown in color, with yellow filigree between the dorsal granules. The abdomen is yellowish brown with dark blotches. The most prominent coloration of this frog is the yellow interocular band situated between the eyes (Donoso et. al. 2010).

Listed by UK’s EDGE (Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered) Program as the 5th most endangered amphibian species in the world. The CACC (Chilean Amphibian Conservation Center) is working on establishing an assurance colony of this species at the National Zoo of Chile in the city of Santiago (Safi et al. 2013).

The species authority is: Schmidt, K. P. (1952). "A new leptodactylid frog from Chile." Fieldiana Zoology, 34, 11-15.

Telmatobufo bullocki belongs to the family Calyptocephalellidae, which consists of four species in two genera and was once considered part of the large family Leptodactylidae. The closest relative of the Calyptocephalellidae is Australian family Myobatrachidae (Donoso et al. 2010).

In Greek, "Telmato-" means marsh, pool, standing or stagnant water, mud of a pool; and "bufo" from Latin, means frog. The species name, bullocki, could be derived from one of several famous naturalists, or from the Old English "Bullock" meaning young bull.

  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Donoso, D. S., Correa, C., Henriquez, P., Lagos, N. F., and Mendez, M. A. (2010). ''Amphibia, Anura, Calyptocephalellidae, Telmatobufo bullocki Schmidt, 1952: Distribution extension, habitat use and geographic distribution map.'' Check List, 6, 298-300.
  • Safi, K., Armour-Marshall, K., Baillie, J.E.M., Isaac, N.J.B. (2013). ''Global Patterns of Evolutionary Distinct and Globally.'' PLOS One, 8(5), e63582.
  • Formas, J.R., Núñez, J.J. and Brieva, L.M. (2001). ''Osteología, taxonomía y relaciones filogenéticas de las ranas del género Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae).'' Revista Chilena de Historia Natural,
  • Fórmas, J. R. (1988). ''The tadpole of Telmatobufo bullocki (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Herpetologica, 44, 458-460.
  • Veloso, A., Núñez, H., Formas, R. (2010). Telmatobufo bullocki. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Downloaded on 11 May 2013.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is known from only a few locations in the Coastal Range, Nahuelbuta, Arauco Province, Chile, between 37° and 38°S. It has an altitudinal range of 800-1,200m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

Telmatobufo bullocki is endemic to Chile and was previously restricted to the Nahuelbata Mountain Range in an area of less than 500 km2. However, the two most recently described specimens were found 150 km north of this area, past the Bio Bío River—a well known biogeographical barrier. Ranging from 800 - 1,000 m above sea level, T. bullocki can be found around mountainous streams surrounded by dense vegetation during mating periods, and in upland pine forests during non-mating periods (Donoso et al. 2010).

  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Donoso, D. S., Correa, C., Henriquez, P., Lagos, N. F., and Mendez, M. A. (2010). ''Amphibia, Anura, Calyptocephalellidae, Telmatobufo bullocki Schmidt, 1952: Distribution extension, habitat use and geographic distribution map.'' Check List, 6, 298-300.
  • Safi, K., Armour-Marshall, K., Baillie, J.E.M., Isaac, N.J.B. (2013). ''Global Patterns of Evolutionary Distinct and Globally.'' PLOS One, 8(5), e63582.
  • Formas, J.R., Núñez, J.J. and Brieva, L.M. (2001). ''Osteología, taxonomía y relaciones filogenéticas de las ranas del género Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae).'' Revista Chilena de Historia Natural,
  • Fórmas, J. R. (1988). ''The tadpole of Telmatobufo bullocki (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Herpetologica, 44, 458-460.
  • Veloso, A., Núñez, H., Formas, R. (2010). Telmatobufo bullocki. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Downloaded on 11 May 2013.
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Magallanes
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Known from only a few locations in the Coastal Range, Nahuelbuta, Arauco Province, Chile, between 37° and 38°S. It has an altitudinal range of 800-1,200m asl.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description of holotype Body stocky, width of head 2% times in length of body; tibio-tarsal articulation reaching eye; proximal joint of arm largely enclosed in body skin; heels meeting when hind limbs are placed at right angles to body. Tongue circular, free behind; six large vomerine teeth on each side, in prominent elevated patches behind the level of the moderatesized choanae (0.8 mm. in diameter). Fingers free, without subarticular tubercles, the first shorter than the second, their tips not expanded; toes broadly webbed, the web extending to the tip of the fourth toe as a marginal flap; fifth toe broadly glandular on outer side; inner metatarsal tubercle small; no outer metatarsal tubercle; a glandular tarsal fold. Dorsal skin with numerous raised smooth glandular warts, interspersed with small low warts; prominent parotoid glands, longer than the eye, just behind the posterior angle of the eye; ventral skin perfectly smooth; a prominent gland on anterior side of forearm, and glands extending on thighs and tibiae. General color (in alcohol): dark grayish brown, the glandular warts all darker than the narrow interspaces; ventral surfaces mottled with brown on a yellowish brown ground color; upper eyelids white, yellowish in life. Larval morphology Body ovoid in lateral view, 1.9 times longer than deep, 1.8 times longer than wide. Nostrils dorsal, small, closer to eyes than to snout tip, directed anterodorsolaterally; internarial distance similar to orbital separation. Eyes small, directed dorsolaterally. Spiracle sinistral, nearer anus than snout tip. Anal opening dextral, covered ventrally by a sheath of skin which also covers minute hind limbs. Tail deeper than body, 1.4 times body length. Caudal musculature robust, especially at tail base; muscular segmentation visible. Dorsal fin not reaching body; ventral fin almost reaching skin fold that covers hind limbs. Tail tip rounded. Snout tip blunt. Mouth a broad disc, ventral in position; greatest width of mouth as wide as body; mouth completely surrounded by two or three rows of papillae. Two complete rows of teeth anterior to beak; three rows of teeth, innermost divided medially, posterior to beak. In formalin, body dark brown, venter transparent, intestine visible. Fins transparent with minute melanophores.
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Ecology

Habitat

Valdivian Temperate Forests Habitat

This taxon is found in the Valdivian temperate forests, the more hygrophilous vegetation of the mediterranean climate zone of central Chile, representing a biogeographic island, separated from climatically similar areas by the extensive Pacific Ocean barriers and flanking deserts. Rainfall varies so dramatically within the ecoregion, that some of the sub-units can be considered dry forests, with others classified as rainforest.

The Valdivian temperate forest is characterised by its extraordinary endemism (e.g., 90 percent at the species level and 34 percent at the genus level for woody species) and the great antiquity of its biogeographic relationships. However, faunal species richness is only modest, with only 290 vertebrate taxa having been recorded, in spite of the broad latitude niche available.

In general, the southern temperate forests are characterized by flora with one of the highest incidences of pollination and dissemination by animals recorded in any temperate biome, particularly in comparison with the northern hemisphere. In temperate forests of southern South America, the flowers of about 85 percent of woody plant genera are visited and presumably pollinated by animals. This ecoregion has extremely singular bees, in which many important neotropical subfamilies like Meliponinae and Euglosinae are entirely absent, but characterised by the presence of endemic and possibly relict groups such as Xeromelissinae, Diphaglosa, Cadeguala, Corynura, Neofidelia, Manuelia, and Eucerinoda.

There is a highly diverse set of anuran species   Many of the amphibians in these forests have very narrow distribution ranges, particularly in the coastal range. Amphibians limited to the Nahuelbuta Range at 38°S include Bullock's False Toad (Telmatobufo bullocki CR), an endemic anuran to the Valdivian temperate forests. Also limited to the Nahuelbuta Range and endemic to the Valdivian temperate forests are Vanzolini's Spiny-chested Frog (Alsodes vanzolinii CR), Cabreria Spiny-chest Frog (Alsodes barrioi VU), and Contulmo Toad (Eupsophus contulmoensis VU).

There are a number of reptilian taxa present in the Valdivian temperate forests, especially within the Tree Iguana group; example ecoregion endemics here are: the Curicen Tree Iguana (Liolaemus curicensis) and the Cyan Tree Iguana (Liolaemus cyanogaster). Endemic mammal species are also biologically interesting because of their kinship to geographically remote groups. This is the case with Dromiciops gliroides, an arboreal marsupial found in this ecoregion, located in the basal trunk of Australasian and American marsupials. Another Valdivian temperate forests ecoregion endemic is the Chilean Climbing Mouse (Irenomys tarsalis). An endangered herbivore found in the ecoregion is the Chilean Guemal (Hippocamelus bisulcus). The Chilean Shrew Opossum (Hippocamelus bisulcus NT) is another Valdivian temperate forests endemic.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It occurs in fast-flowing streams in temperate Nothofagus forest. The tadpoles are free-swimming and feed by scraping algae off of submerged rocks. It is tolerant of moderate habitat destruction.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

strafantina, sarmentogenina(7)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
B2ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Alberto Veloso, Herman Núñez, Ramón Formas

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Critically Endangered, because its area of occupancy is probably less than 500 km2, with all individuals in fewer than five locations, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in Arauco Province, Chile.

History
  • 2004
    Critically Endangered
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
  • 1994
    Rare
    (Groombridge 1994)
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CR. Critically Endangered.
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Population

Population
It is extremely rare; extensive fieldwork by several herpetologists within the range of this species from 1992-2002 turned up only a single adult (in 2002).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Adults have been found underneath fallen logs and stones in Nothofagus forests. During the mating seasons in January, February, and August, T. bullocki moves from upland forests to fast-moving mountain streams. The tadpoles (present December through January) are highly adapted to lotic environments and adhere to river rocks using a broad buccal disc with which they scrape algae (Formas 2008). No information has been reported on the calling habits or sexual behavior of this species. Males have been observed to possess nuptial excrescences (prominent spiny warty) during the reproductive seasons. Females collected contained an average of 112 pale yellow eggs 2.4mm in diameter. It is mostly unknown exactly what T. bullocki’s diet consists of, but the stomach contents of the first described specimen included 19 insects and plant material, suggesting a mainly terrestrial diet (Formas et al. 2001).

  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Donoso, D. S., Correa, C., Henriquez, P., Lagos, N. F., and Mendez, M. A. (2010). ''Amphibia, Anura, Calyptocephalellidae, Telmatobufo bullocki Schmidt, 1952: Distribution extension, habitat use and geographic distribution map.'' Check List, 6, 298-300.
  • Safi, K., Armour-Marshall, K., Baillie, J.E.M., Isaac, N.J.B. (2013). ''Global Patterns of Evolutionary Distinct and Globally.'' PLOS One, 8(5), e63582.
  • Formas, J.R., Núñez, J.J. and Brieva, L.M. (2001). ''Osteología, taxonomía y relaciones filogenéticas de las ranas del género Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae).'' Revista Chilena de Historia Natural,
  • Fórmas, J. R. (1988). ''The tadpole of Telmatobufo bullocki (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Herpetologica, 44, 458-460.
  • Veloso, A., Núñez, H., Formas, R. (2010). Telmatobufo bullocki. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Downloaded on 11 May 2013.
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Threats

Major Threats
The major threat to the species is clear cutting and afforestation with pine plantations, which causes siltation of streams (which, in turn, makes it harder for the larvae to feed).
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

IUCN has not specified a population trend, but it is most likely in decline due to the threats of clear cutting and deforestation. The process of removing these trees not only reduces the size of available habit but silts nearby streams, making making it difficult for larvae to feed. The possibility of death due to the use of mechanized harvest is also present, as well as toxins from herbicides and fertilizers on plantations. The species occurs within Chile’s Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta, but there is a need for additional protection and maintenance (Veloso et al. 2010).

  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Donoso, D. S., Correa, C., Henriquez, P., Lagos, N. F., and Mendez, M. A. (2010). ''Amphibia, Anura, Calyptocephalellidae, Telmatobufo bullocki Schmidt, 1952: Distribution extension, habitat use and geographic distribution map.'' Check List, 6, 298-300.
  • Safi, K., Armour-Marshall, K., Baillie, J.E.M., Isaac, N.J.B. (2013). ''Global Patterns of Evolutionary Distinct and Globally.'' PLOS One, 8(5), e63582.
  • Formas, J.R., Núñez, J.J. and Brieva, L.M. (2001). ''Osteología, taxonomía y relaciones filogenéticas de las ranas del género Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae).'' Revista Chilena de Historia Natural,
  • Fórmas, J. R. (1988). ''The tadpole of Telmatobufo bullocki (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Herpetologica, 44, 458-460.
  • Veloso, A., Núñez, H., Formas, R. (2010). Telmatobufo bullocki. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Downloaded on 11 May 2013.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in the Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta, but there is a need for additional protection and maintenance of habitat at sites at which this species is known to occur. Further survey work is required to determine the current population status of the species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

As T. bullocki is very rare, the importance to humans is unknown. After 10 years of no documented occurrence of T. bullocki, a specimen was found and reignited concerns about the environmental repercussions of deforestation (Veloso et al. 2010).

  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Donoso, D. S., Correa, C., Henriquez, P., Lagos, N. F., and Mendez, M. A. (2010). ''Amphibia, Anura, Calyptocephalellidae, Telmatobufo bullocki Schmidt, 1952: Distribution extension, habitat use and geographic distribution map.'' Check List, 6, 298-300.
  • Safi, K., Armour-Marshall, K., Baillie, J.E.M., Isaac, N.J.B. (2013). ''Global Patterns of Evolutionary Distinct and Globally.'' PLOS One, 8(5), e63582.
  • Formas, J.R., Núñez, J.J. and Brieva, L.M. (2001). ''Osteología, taxonomía y relaciones filogenéticas de las ranas del género Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae).'' Revista Chilena de Historia Natural,
  • Fórmas, J. R. (1988). ''The tadpole of Telmatobufo bullocki (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Herpetologica, 44, 458-460.
  • Veloso, A., Núñez, H., Formas, R. (2010). Telmatobufo bullocki. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Downloaded on 11 May 2013.
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Wikipedia

Telmatobufo bullocki

Telmatobufo bullocki (Bullock’s mountains false toad) is a species of frog in the Calyptocephalellidae family, recently moved from the Leptodactylidae family.[2] It is endemic to Chile. It is only known from a few locations in the Cordillera de Nahuelbuta, a part of the Chilean Coast Range. It is extremely rare; extensive fieldwork in 1992–2002 turned up only a single adult. It occurs in fast-flowing streams in temperate Nothofagus forest. The tadpoles are free-swimming and feed on algae growing on submerged rocks. It is threatened by siltation of streams caused by clear-cutting. It occurs within the Nahuelbuta National Park.[1]

Range of Telmatobufo bullocki

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Veloso, A., Núñez, H. & Formas, R. (2010). "Telmatobufo bullocki". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2013). "Telmatobufo bullocki Schmidt, 1952". Amphibian Species of the World 5.6, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
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