The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2004. database, Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference
  • Andrew Snider and J. Bowler (1992) Longevity of Reptiles and Amphibians in North American Collections, Second Edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles .
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2004. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004)
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2004. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004)
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Conant, R., J. Collins. 1998 (Third Ed., Expanded). Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Jonathan A. Campbell, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2000. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Herpetological Circular, no. 29
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Jonathan A. Campbell, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2000. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Herpetological Circular, no. 29. iv + 82
  • Frost, Darrel R. 2009. database. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference v5.3
  • Harding, J. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.
  • Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Accessed November 16, 1999 at http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col. Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Petranka, J. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Wasnington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Pfingsten, R., F. Downs. 1989. Salamanders of Ohio. Columbus: Bull. Ohio Biol. Survey.
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1889. United States National Museum Bulletin. (34): 178.

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!