Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Bufo parvus is a small toad, with females of this species typically being larger than the males. Females have a snout-vent length of 40-50 mm while the males reach a snout-vent length of 30-35 mm. This toad has a short snout. A supraorbital ridge and a pair of parietal ridges are present. The skin is wrinkled and bears tubercles or warts. No tubercles are present behind the parotoid gland. The toes are half-webbed. Adult B. parvus can be brown, black, or reddish in color while the juveniles are brown in color. Adults also generally have a pair of symmetrical black spots on the mid-back. Males usually have a reddish throat (Iskandar, 1998).

The tadpoles are small, with the tail usually no longer than double the head plus body length, and a denticle formula of I+1-1/III. Papillae are confined to the corner of the mouth, and the mouth is not adapted for stream-dwelling (Iskandar, 1998). Inthara et al. (2005; p. 78) provide a drawing of the larval mouthparts of Bufo parvus compared to eight other tadpole species of Thailand.

Bufo parvus is toxic, with skin extract doses of 100 mg/mouse causing locomotor difficulties, prostration convulsions, and death in 2 hours (Daly et al., 2004). This frog is very similar to Bornean populations of B. biporcatus in morphology and behavior (Inger et al., 1974). Bufo parvus can be distinguished by its smaller size and by the lack of tubercles behind the parotoid gland (present in B. biporcatus), as well as by having a pair of symmetrical black blotches on the back (absent in B. biporcatus) (Iskandar, 1998).

The species name uses the Latin word parvus, meaning small (Iskandar, 1998).

  • Daly, J. W., Noimai, N., Kongkathip, B., Kongkathip, N., Wilham, J. M., Garraffo, H. M., Kaneko, T., Spande, T. F., Ninit, Y., Nabhitabhata, J., and Chan-Ard, T. (2004). ''Biologically active substances from amphibians: preliminary studies on anurans from twenty-one genera of Thailand.'' Toxicon, 44, 805-815.
  • Inger, R. F., Voris, H. K., and Voris, H. H. (1974). ''Genetic variation and population ecology of some Southeast Asian frogs of the genus Bufo and Rana.'' Biochemical Genetics, 12(2), 121-145.
  • Iskandar, D. T. (1998). The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Research and Development Centre for Biology-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.
  • Inthara, C., Lauhachinda, V., Nabhitabhata, J., Chuaynkorn, Y., and Kumtong, P. (2005). ''Mouth part structures and distribution of some tadpoles from Thailand.'' The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal, 1, 55-78.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in western and Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, southern Myanmar, and Indonesia (Sumatra, Pini and Java). There is an isolated population in southeastern Thailand and the Cardamom Mountains of Cambodia (Dring, 1979 and S. Swan pers. comm.). It does not occur in Singapore (Lim and Lim, 1992). It occurs up to 520m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

This toad occurs in forests and rubber plantations from peninsular Thailand and Burma throughout the Malay peninsula (Inger et al., 1974). It inhabits both primary and secondary forest, and can also be found in gardens (Iskandar, 1998).

  • Daly, J. W., Noimai, N., Kongkathip, B., Kongkathip, N., Wilham, J. M., Garraffo, H. M., Kaneko, T., Spande, T. F., Ninit, Y., Nabhitabhata, J., and Chan-Ard, T. (2004). ''Biologically active substances from amphibians: preliminary studies on anurans from twenty-one genera of Thailand.'' Toxicon, 44, 805-815.
  • Inger, R. F., Voris, H. K., and Voris, H. H. (1974). ''Genetic variation and population ecology of some Southeast Asian frogs of the genus Bufo and Rana.'' Biochemical Genetics, 12(2), 121-145.
  • Iskandar, D. T. (1998). The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Research and Development Centre for Biology-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.
  • Inthara, C., Lauhachinda, V., Nabhitabhata, J., Chuaynkorn, Y., and Kumtong, P. (2005). ''Mouth part structures and distribution of some tadpoles from Thailand.'' The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal, 1, 55-78.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It inhabits streams in primary and regenerating rainforest, mainly in lowlands. It has not been found in open areas outside forest. It breeds in forest pools and slow-moving streams where the larvae also develop.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
It is abundant in most areas of suitable habitat in mainland Southeast Asia. It is considered to be uncommon in Indonesia.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

This species disperses on the forest floor more than 30 m from streams, so that the nonbreeding ranges are distinct from their breeding sites (Inger et al., 1974). Females of this species lay clutches of several hundred eggs in stagnant or slowly moving waters (Iskandar, 1998) consisting of rocky pools alongside small streams less than 10 m wide (Inger et al., 1974). Bufo parvus forms semi-isolated breeding aggregations, and calling, amplexing, and oviposition occurs at the same site (Inger et al., 1974).

  • Daly, J. W., Noimai, N., Kongkathip, B., Kongkathip, N., Wilham, J. M., Garraffo, H. M., Kaneko, T., Spande, T. F., Ninit, Y., Nabhitabhata, J., and Chan-Ard, T. (2004). ''Biologically active substances from amphibians: preliminary studies on anurans from twenty-one genera of Thailand.'' Toxicon, 44, 805-815.
  • Inger, R. F., Voris, H. K., and Voris, H. H. (1974). ''Genetic variation and population ecology of some Southeast Asian frogs of the genus Bufo and Rana.'' Biochemical Genetics, 12(2), 121-145.
  • Iskandar, D. T. (1998). The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Research and Development Centre for Biology-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.
  • Inthara, C., Lauhachinda, V., Nabhitabhata, J., Chuaynkorn, Y., and Kumtong, P. (2005). ''Mouth part structures and distribution of some tadpoles from Thailand.'' The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal, 1, 55-78.
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to the survival of this species at present.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

This species is not threatened.

  • Daly, J. W., Noimai, N., Kongkathip, B., Kongkathip, N., Wilham, J. M., Garraffo, H. M., Kaneko, T., Spande, T. F., Ninit, Y., Nabhitabhata, J., and Chan-Ard, T. (2004). ''Biologically active substances from amphibians: preliminary studies on anurans from twenty-one genera of Thailand.'' Toxicon, 44, 805-815.
  • Inger, R. F., Voris, H. K., and Voris, H. H. (1974). ''Genetic variation and population ecology of some Southeast Asian frogs of the genus Bufo and Rana.'' Biochemical Genetics, 12(2), 121-145.
  • Iskandar, D. T. (1998). The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Research and Development Centre for Biology-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.
  • Inthara, C., Lauhachinda, V., Nabhitabhata, J., Chuaynkorn, Y., and Kumtong, P. (2005). ''Mouth part structures and distribution of some tadpoles from Thailand.'' The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal, 1, 55-78.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in a large number of protected areas, which should safeguard the survival of the species if current protection levels are at least maintained. It is protected by the WARPA 1992 law of Thailand.
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Wikipedia

Ingerophrynus parvus

Ingerophrynus parvus is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family. It is found in Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, rivers, intermittent rivers, and intermittent freshwater marshes.

References[edit]

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