The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2004. database, Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference
  • Andrew Snider and J. Bowler (1992) Longevity of Reptiles and Amphibians in North American Collections, Second Edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles .
  • Aubry, K. B., and Hall, P. A. (1991). ''Terrestrial amphibian communities in the southern Washington Cascade Range.'' Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-fir Forests, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-285. Ruggiero, L. F., Aubry, K. B., Carey, A. B., and Huff, M. H., technical coordinators, eds., USDA Forest Service, Northwest Research Station, Olympia, Washington., 326-338.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2004. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004)
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2004. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004)
  • Blair, A. P. (1951). "Notes on the herpetology of the Elk mountains, Colorado." Copeia, 1951, 239-240.
  • Blaustein, A. R., Edmond, B., Kiesecker, J. M., Beatty, J. J., and Hokit, D. G. (1995). "Ambient ultraviolet radiation causes mortality in salamander eggs." Ecological Applications, 5(3), 740-743.
  • Blaustein, A. R., Wake, D. B., and Sousa, W. P. (1994). "Amphibian declines: Judging stability, persistence, and susceptibility of populations to local and global extinctions." Conservation Biology, 8(1), 60-71.
  • Boundy, J. and Balgooyen, T. G. (1988). "Record lengths of some amphibians and reptiles from the western United States." Herpetological Review, 19, 27.
  • Brodie, E. D., Jr. and Gibson, L. S. (1969). ''Defensive behavior and skin glands of the Northwestern Salamander.'' Herpetologica, 25, 187-194.
  • Brown, H. A. (1976). ''The time-temperature relation of embryonic development in the Northwestern Salamander, Ambystoma gracile.'' Canadian Journal of Zoology, 54, 552-558.
  • Burger, W. L. (1950). ''Novel aspects of the life history of two Ambystomas.'' Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Sciences, 25, 252-257.
  • Corn, P. S. and Bury, R. B. (1991). ''Terrestrial amphibian communities in the Oregon Coast Range.'' Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-fir Forests, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-285. K. Ruggiero, B. Aubry, A. B. Carey, and M. H. Huff, technical coordinators, eds., USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Olympia, Washington., 304-317.
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Frank T. Burbrink, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2008. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, With Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding, Sixth Ed. Herpetological Circular No. 37
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Frank T. Burbrink, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2008. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, With Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding, Sixth Ed. Herpetological Circular No. 37. 1-84
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Jonathan A. Campbell, K. de Queiroz, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2000. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Herpetological Circular, no. 29
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Jonathan A. Campbell, K. de Queiroz, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2000. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Herpetological Circular, no. 29. iv + 82
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Jonathan A. Campbell, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2000. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Herpetological Circular, no. 29
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Jonathan A. Campbell, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2000. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding. Herpetological Circular, no. 29. iv + 82
  • Dunn, E. R. (1944). ''Notes on the salamanders of the Ambystoma gracile group.'' Copeia, 1944, 129-130.
  • Dunn, E. R. (1954). ''The status of Siredon gracilis Baird.'' Copeia, 1954, 135-136.
  • Dyrkacz, S. (1981). "Recent instances of albinism in North American amphibians and reptiles." Herpetological Circular of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 11, 1-31.
  • Eagleson, G. W. (1976). ''A comparison of the life histories and growth patterns of populations of the salamander Ambystoma gracile (Baird) from permanent low-altitude and montane lakes.'' Canadian Journal of Zoology, 54, 2098-2111.
  • Efford, I. E. and Mathias, J. A. (1969). "A comparison of two salamander populations in Marion Lake, British Columbia." Copeia, 1969, 723-736.
  • Efford, I. E. and Tsumura, K. (1973). ''A comparison of the food of salamanders and fish in Marion Lake, British Columbia.'' Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 1, 33-47.
  • Frost, Darrel R. 2009. database. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference v5.3
  • Henry, W. V., and Twitty, V. C. (1940). "Contributions to the life histories of Dicamptodon tenebrosus and Ambystoma gracile." Copeia, 1940, 247-250.
  • Holotype: Baird, S. F. 1868. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 19: 200.
  • Holotype: Cope, E. D. 1886. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23: 522.
  • Knudsen, J. W. (1960). ''The courtship and egg mass of Ambystoma gracile and Ambystoma macrodactylum.'' Copeia, 1960, 44-46.
  • Licht, L. E. (1969). "Observations on the courtship behavior of Ambystoma gracile." Herpetologica, 25, 49-52.
  • Licht, L. E. (1973). "Behavior and sound production by the northwestern salamander Ambystoma gracile." Canadian Journal of Zoology, 51, 1055-1056.
  • Licht, L. E. (1975). "Growth and food of larval Ambystoma gracile from a lowland population in southwestern British Columbia." Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70, 87-93.
  • Licht, L. E., and Sever, D. M. (1993). "Structure and development of the paratoid gland in metamorphosed and neotenic Ambystoma gracile." Copeia, 1993, 116-123.
  • Licth, L. E., 1973. Behavior and Sound Production by the Northwestern Salamanders.
  • Nebeker, A. V., Schuytema, G. S, Griffis, W. L., and Cataldo, A. (1998). ''Impact of guthion on survival and growth of the frog Pseudacris regilla and the salamanders Ambystoma gracile and Ambystoma macrodactylum.'' Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 35(1), 48-51.
  • Nebeker, A. V., Schuytema, G. S., and Ott, S. L. (1995). ''Effects of cadmium on growth and bioaccumulation in the Northwestern Salamander Ambystoma gracile.'' Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 29(4), 492-499.
  • Nebeker, A. V., Shuytema, G. S., and Ott, S. L. (1994). "Effects of cadmium on limb regeneration in the Northwestern salamander." Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 27(3), 318-322.
  • Nussbaum, R. A., Brodie, E. D., Jr., and Storm, R. M. (1983). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, Idaho.
  • Nussbaum, R., E. Brodie, R. Storm. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. Moscow, Idaho: University Press of Idaho.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Ovaska, K. (1997). ''Vulnerability of amphibians in Canada to global warming and increased solar ultraviolet radiation.'' Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem. Green, D. M., eds., Herpetological Conservation, 206-225.
  • Paratype: Baird, S. F. 1868. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 19: 200.
  • Petranka, J. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Petranka, J. W. (1998). Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Richardson, J. P. M. and Adamson, M. L. (1988). ''Megalobatrachonema (Chabaudgolvania) waldeni n. sp. (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) from the intestine of the Northwestern Salamander, Ambystoma gracile (Baird).'' Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66, 1505.
  • Romansic, J. April 23, 2001. "AmphibiaWeb" (On-line). Accessed Apri 6, 2002 at http://amphibiaweb.org/..
  • Slater, J. R. (1936). ''Notes on Ambystoma gracile Baird and Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird.'' Copeia, 1936, 234-236.
  • Snyder, R. C. (1956). ''Comparative features of the life histories of Ambystoma gracile (Baird) from populations at low and high altitudes.'' Copeia, 1956, 187-194.
  • Snyder, R. C. (1963). ''Ambystoma gracile.'' Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 6.1-6.2.
  • Sprules, W. G. (1974). ''The adaptive significance of paedogenesis in North American species of Ambystoma (Amphibia: Caudata): an hypothesis.'' Canadian Journal of Zoology, 52, 393-400.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (1985). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Syntype: Baird, S. F. 1859. U.S. and Pacific Railroad Expedition and Survey of California and Oregon. 10 (Part 4, No. 4): 13, Plate 44, Figure 2.
  • Taylor, J. (1983). ''Orientation and flight behavior of a neotenic salamander (Ambystoma gracile) in Oregon.'' American Midland Naturalist, 109, 40-49.
  • Titus, T. A. and Gaines, M. S. (1991). ''Genetic variation in coastal and montane populations of Ambystoma gracile (Caudata: Ambystomatidae).'' Occasional Paper of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 141, 1-12.
  • Tyler, T. J., Liss, W. J., Hoffman, R. L., and Ganio, L. M. (1998). "Experimental analysis of trout effects on survival, growth, and habitat use of two species of ambystomatid salamanders." Journal of Herpetology, 32(3), 345-349.
  • Walls, S. C., Conrad, C. S. Murillo, M. L., and Blaustein, A. R. (1996). ''Agonistic behaviour in larvae of the Northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile): The effect of kinship, familiarity, and population source.'' Behaviour, 133(13-14), 965-984.
  • Watney, G. M. S. (1941). ''Notes on the life history of Ambystoma gracile Baird.'' Copeia, 1941, 14-17.
  • Weller, W. and Green, D. M. (1997). ''Checklist and current status of Canadian amphibians.'' Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem. D. M. Green, eds., Herpetological Conservation, 309-328.

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