The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2004. database, Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference
  • Amphibian Species of the World V2.20 Database. The American Museum of Natural History. Department of Herpetology.">">
  • Barquero, M. 1994. Habitos alimenticios de Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768) en Golfito, Costa Rica. 41-42: 95-97.
  • Bogart, J. P. (1974). ''A karyosystematic study of frogs in the genus Leptodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae).'' Copeia, (3), 728-737.
  • Breder, C. M. Jr. (1946). ''Amphibians and reptiles of the R�o Chucunaque drainage, Dari�n, Panama, with notes on their life histories and habits.'' Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 86, 375-436.
  • Frank & Kate's Web Page (Online source) External link.
  • Frost, D.R. 1985. AMPHIBIANS SPECIES OF THE WORLD: A Taxonomic and Geographical Reference. Published as a Joint Venture of Allen Press, Inc. and The Association Systematics Collections Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A. 732 p..
  • Frost, Darrel R. 1997. Amphibian Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second edition
  • Frost, Darrel R. 1997. Amphibian Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second edition
  • Frost, Darrel R. 2009. database. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference v5.3
  • Galatti, U. (1992). ''Population biology of the frog Leptodactylus pentadactylus in a Central Amazonian rainforest.'' Journal of Herpetology, 26(1), 23-31.
  • Gunther, A.C.L. 1900-02. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Reptilia and Batrachia. 1885-1902.
  • Guyer, C., and Donnelly, M. A. (2005). Amphibians and Reptiles of La Selva, Costa Rica and the Caribbean Slope: A Comprehensive Guide. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Hero, J.-M., and Galatti, U. (1990). ''Characteristics distinguishing Leptodactylus pentadactylus and Leptodactylus knudseni in the Central Amazon rainforest.'' Journal of Herpetology, 24, 226-228.
  • Heyer, W. R. (1969). ''The adaptive ecology of the species groups of the genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae).'' Evolution, 23, 421-428.
  • Heyer, W. R., McDiarmid, R. W., and Weigmann, D. L. (1975). ''Tadpoles, predation, and pond habitats in the tropics.'' Biotropica, 7(2), 100-111.
  • Heyer, W. R., and Rand, A. S. (1977). ''Foam nest construction in the leptodactylid frogs Leptodactylus pentadactylus and Physalaemus pustulosus (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).'' Journal of Herpetology, 11(2), 225-228.
  • Heyer, W.R. .1979. Sytematics of the pentadactylus species group of the frog genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae). Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. 301: 1-43.
  • Heyer. W.R.. 1970. Studies on the genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae). ll. Diagnósis and distribution of the Leptodactylus of Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 16: 171-205.
  • Heyer. W.R.; R.W. McDiarmid y D.L. Weigmann. 1975. Tadpoles, predation and pond habitats in the tropics. Biotropica 7: 100-111.
  • Jaeger, R. G., and Hailman, J. P. (1981). ''Activity of neotropical frogs in relation to ambient light.'' Biotropica, 13(1), 59-65.
  • Kicliter, E., and Goytia, E. J. (1995). ''A comparison of spectral response function of positive and negative phototaxis in two anuran amphibians, Rana pipiens and Leptodactylus pentadactylus.'' Neuroscience Letters, 185(2), 144-146.
  • Leenders, T. (2001). A Guide to Amphibians And Reptiles of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical, Miami.
  • Lieberman, S.S. 1986. Ecology of the leaf litter herpetofauna of a Neotropical rainforest: La Selva, Costa Rica. Acta Zool. Mex. 15: 1-72.
  • Muedeking, M. H., and Heyer, W. R. (1976). ''Description of eggs and reproductive patterns of Leptodactytylus pentadactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae).'' Herpetologica, 32, 137-139.
  • Norman, D. 1998. Common Amphibians of Costa Rica/Anfibios Comunes de Costa Rica. U.S Fish & Wildlife Service, Asociación Conservacionista Yiski. 96 p.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Prado, C. P. de A., Uetanabaro, M., and Haddad, C F. B. (2002). ''Description of a new reproductive mode in Leptodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae), with a review of the reproductive specialization towards terrestriality in the genus.'' Copeia, 2002(4), 221-245.
  • Prohl, H. 1997. Los Anfibios de Hitoy Cerere, Costa Rica. Proyecto Namasol, Cooperación Técnica Bilateral Holanda-Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica. 66 p.
  • Savage, J. M. (2002). The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Savage, J.M. 1973. A Preliminary Handlist of the Herpetofauna of Costa Rica. s.d.. 17 p..
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The amphibians and reptiles of Costa Rica. The University of Chicago Press. China. 934 p.
  • Savage, J.M. y J. Villa. 1986. Introduction to the Herpetofauna of Costa Rica/Introducción a la Herpetofauna de Costa Rica. Society for the Studies of Amphibians and Reptiles, Athens, 207.
  • Scott, N.J. 1991. Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Rana Ternero, Smoky Frog). Pp. 410-411, In: D.H. Janzen (ed.). Historia Natural de Costa Rica. Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica.
  • Taylor, E.H.. 1972. The frogs and toads of Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci, Bull. 35: 577-942.
  • Universidad de Costa Rica. s.f.. CATALOGO DE HERPETOLOGIA. Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. s.d..
  • Valerio, C.E. (1971). ''Ability of some tropical tadpoles to survive without water.'' Copeia, 1971(2), 364-365.
  • Valerio, C.E.. 1971. Ability of some tropical tadpoles to survive without water. Copeia 1971 (2): 364-365.
  • Villa, J. (1969). ''Comportamiento defensivo de la ''rana ternero,'' Leptodactylus pentadactylus.'' Revista de Biología Tropical, 15(2), 323-329.
  • Villa, J., McDiarmid, R. W., and Gallado, J. M. (1982). ''Arthropod predators of leptodactylid frog foam nests.'' Brenesia, 19/20, 578-589.
  • Villa. J. 1969. Comportamiento defensivo de la "Rana Ternero", Leptodactylus pentadactylus. Rev. Biol. Trop. 15: 323-329.
  • Vinton, K. W. (1951). ''Observations on the life history of Leptodactylus pentadactylus.'' Herpetologica, 7(2), 73-75.


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