The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2004. database, Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference
  • Andrew Snider and J. Bowler (1992) Longevity of Reptiles and Amphibians in North American Collections, Second Edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles .
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2004. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004)
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2004. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004)
  • Beechy, C., R. Bruce. 1992. Lunglessness in Plethodontid salamanders is consistent witht he hypothesis of a mountain stream origin: A response to Ruben and Boucot. American Naturalist, 149(4): 839-847.
  • Behler, J., F. King. 1979. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York, NY: Chanticleer Press and Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..
  • Blanchard, F. 1934. The relation of the female four-toed salamander to her nest. Copeia, 1934: 137-138.
  • Blanchard, F. 1935. The sex ratio in the salamander Hemidactylium scutatum (Schlegel). Copeia, 1935: 103.
  • Breitenbach, G. 1982. The frequency of communal nesting and solitary brooding in the salamander, Hemidactylium scutatum. Journal of Herpetology, 16(4): 341-346.
  • Burton, T., G. Likens. 1975a. Salamander populations and biomass in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Copeia, 1975: 541-546.
  • Burton, T., G. Likens. 1975b. Energy flow and nutrient cycling in salamander populations in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Ecology, 56: 1068-1080.
  • Carreno, C., R. Harris. 1998. Lack of nest defense behavior and attendance patterns in a joint nesting salamander, Hemidactylium scutatum (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Copeia, 1998(1): 183-189.
  • Carreno, C., T. Vess, R. Harris. 1996. An investigation of kin recognition abilities in larval four-toed salamanders, Hemidactylium scutatum (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Herpetologica, 52: 293-300.
  • Conant, R., J. Collins. 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Third Ed., Expanded. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Frank T. Burbrink, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2008. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, With Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding, Sixth Ed. Herpetological Circular No. 37
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Frank T. Burbrink, et al. / Moriarty, John J., ed. 2008. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, With Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding, Sixth Ed. Herpetological Circular No. 37. 1-84
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Jonathan A. Campbell, Kevin de Quieroz, Darrel Frost, et al. 2003. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico: Update. Herpetological Review, vol. 34, no. 3
  • Crother, Brian I., Jeff Boundy, Jonathan A. Campbell, Kevin de Quieroz, Darrel Frost, et al. 2003. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico: Update. Herpetological Review, vol. 34, no. 3. 196-203
  • Easterla, D. 1971. A breeding concentration of fourt-toed slamanders, Hemidactylium scutatum, in southeastern Missouri. Journal of Herpetology, 5: 194-195.
  • Frost, Darrel R. 2009. database. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference v5.3
  • Harding, J. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
  • Harris, R., D. Gill. 1980. Communal nesting, brooding behavior, and embryonic survival of the four-toed salamander *Hemidactylium scutatum*. Herpetologica, 36(2): 141-144.
  • Lannoo, M. 1998. Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians. Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa Press.
  • Oliver, J. 1955. The Natural History of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Petranka, J. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Cananda. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Wake, D. 1966. Comparitive Osteology and Evolution of the Lungless Salamanders, Family Plethodontidae. Los Angeles, California: Anderson, Ritchie and Simon.

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