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The granular toad, or common lesser toad, Rhinella granulosa, is a small nocturnal bufonid toad common throughout most of the Amazonian Basin from Panama through the Guianas, eastern Columbia, Venezuela, eastern lowland Bolivia, much of Brazil, and northern Paraguay and Argentina (not Ecuador, Peru or Uruguay). The name Rhinella granulosa probably represents a complex of several biological species. Köhler (2000) indicates that this has long been a taxonomically difficult species, with 14 species described in it as of that time, and that more distinct species are highly likely to be included in this appellation.
This terrestrial toad feeds on ants and termites, especially in open areas, savannahs, river shorelines; in forests it is found along tracks and roads. It is tolerant of disturbed habitats and can be found in urban environments.
The granular toad reproduces year round, with a peak in the wet season. It breeds explosively in permanent waterbodies and in shallow, temporary ponds and puddles, laying clutches of about 900 eggs in gelatinous strings on the top of the water. The light brown tadpoles develop in the water in about 30 days.
Males (60-70 mm, or 2.4 -2.75 inches, in body length) are smaller than females (80-90 mm; 3.1-3.5 inches). They are splotchy brown, with dorsal skin containing granular glands, belly color white or cream.
The granular toad is sometimes seen in the international pet trade. It is not listed as a threatened species.
(Silvano et al. 2010; Lima et al. 2007)