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 Thallus: crustose, areolate, verruculose or bullate, thin or up to 1.2 mm thick; prothallus: absent; surface: white (like chalk), or yellowish white to whitish gray, dull to weakly glossy; without soredia or isidia; Apothecia: sessile or sometimes semi-immersed, strongly constricted at base, 1-2 mm in diam.; disc: black, plane, convex to strongly convex (when old), epruinose; margin: distinct, thin (c. 0.1 mm wide), becoming excluded; exciple: bluish to greenish black, without algal cells; parathecium: reddish brown to rarely yellowish brown, without crystals; epihymenium: green, or rarely olive (if damaged ?); hymenium: hyaline, 60-85 µm tall, not inspersed; paraphyses: simple, rarely anastomosing or branched, not or slightly or sometimes distinctly thickened apically; hypothecium: brown, yellowish brown, or with reddish brown hyphal ropes stretching into the exciple; asci: clavate, lecanoral, 8-spored; ascospores: hyaline, simple, broadly ellipsoid to ovoid, 8-16 x 5-9 µm; wall: thick and smooth, not halonate; Pycnidia: globular, with a brown wall, at upper side blackish brown, with Vobis-type III conidiophores; conidia: filiform, strongly curved, 15-30 µm long; Spot tests: thallus surface K+ yellow to rarely K-, C-, KC-, P+ yellow to rarely P-; Secondary metabolites: 4,5-dichloro3-O-methylnorlichexanthone and rarely arthothelin (2,4,5trichloronorlichexanthone), atranorin, chloroatranorin, diploicin, and thuringione (=2,4,5-trichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone).; Substrate and ecology: on non-calciferous rocks, rarely wood or bark; World distribution: Africa, and temperate parts of Asia, Europe, North and South America; Sonoran distribution: widespread in interior region of Arizona, southern California, Baja California and Sonora at intermediate elevations. 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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