endemic to a single state or province
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (Zero (no occurrences believed extant)) Historical range included Goodenough Spring and adjacent spring run, which flowed 1.3 km to Rio Grande, Val Verde County, Texas. Captive stocks that formerly existed at the University of Texas and Dexter Fish Lab are now extinct (contaminated with mosquitofish).
- Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
Length: 4 cm
- Hugg, D.O. 1996 MAPFISH georeferenced mapping database. Freshwater and estuarine fishes of North America. Life Science Software. Dennis O. and Steven Hugg, 1278 Turkey Point Road, Edgewater, Maryland, USA. (Ref. 12193)
Catalog Number: USNM 205858
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Conner & M. Zenegerle
Year Collected: 1968
Locality: Goodenough Springs near Main Boil, Val Verde Co., Texas., Val Verde County, Texas, United States, North America
- Paratype: Peden, A. E. 1973. Copeia. 1973 (2): 211.
Habitat and Ecology
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Comments: This species inhabited a large vegetated spring and its effluent (Minckley et al. 1991, Page and Burr 2011).
Depth range (m): 0.005 - 0.005
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 0 (zero)
Comments: No occurrences remain.
Zero, no individuals known extant
Life History and Behavior
See Copeia 1973:210-221, 250-263 for information on the biology of this species.
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 1994Extinct(Groombridge 1994)
- 1990Extinct(IUCN 1990)
- 1988Extinct(IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
- 1986Extinct(IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NX - Presumed Extirpated
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: GX - Presumed Extinct
Reasons: Historically occurred in one spring system in Texas; site was inundated by a reservoir, extirpating the species in the wild in 1968; former captive stocks were eliminated through contamination with mosquitofish in the early 1970s.
Extinct (Hubbs and Jensen 1984, USFWS 1987, Miller et al. 1989, Robins et al. 1991). See Minckley et al. (1991) for a detailed account of the history of this species and Goodenough Spring.
Comments: Habitat was inundated by Amistad Reservoir, extirpating species in its natural range.
The Amistad gambusia (Gambusia amistadensis) was a small fish known only to occur in Goodenough Spring, Val Verde County, Texas, a tributary of the Rio Grande. This species was eliminated in the wild when construction of the Amistad Reservoir in 1968 submerged Goodenough Spring under about 70 feet of water. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) listed the Amistad gambusia as endangered in 1980, when it occurred only in captivity. The two captive populations, held by the University of Texas System and the Dexter National Fish Hatchery in New Mexico, died or were eliminated through hybridization and predation. The FWS ruled the Amistad gambusia extinct in 1987, and removed it from the endangered species list.
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). "Gambusia amistadensis" in FishBase. May 2006 version.
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Names and Taxonomy
Comments: Subgenus Arthrophallus, senilis species group (Rauchenberger 1989). See Rauchenberger (1989) for a study of the interrelationships of the subgenera and species groups within the genus Gambusia.