Overview

Distribution

endemic to a single state or province

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Absent

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (Zero (no occurrences believed extant)) Historical range included Goodenough Spring and adjacent spring run, which flowed 1.3 km to Rio Grande, Val Verde County, Texas. Captive stocks that formerly existed at the University of Texas and Dexter Fish Lab are now extinct (contaminated with mosquitofish).

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North America: formerly in Goodenough Spring (Rio Grande drainage) in Texas, USA.
  • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
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Goodenough Spring and its outflow, Texas, U.S.A. [extinct].
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 4 cm

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Maximum size: 35 mm SL
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Max. size

3.5 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193))
  • Hugg, D.O. 1996 MAPFISH georeferenced mapping database. Freshwater and estuarine fishes of North America. Life Science Software. Dennis O. and Steven Hugg, 1278 Turkey Point Road, Edgewater, Maryland, USA. (Ref. 12193)
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Type Information

Paratype for Gambusia amistadensis Peden
Catalog Number: USNM 205858
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): J. Conner & M. Zenegerle
Year Collected: 1968
Locality: Goodenough Springs near Main Boil, Val Verde Co., Texas., Val Verde County, Texas, United States, North America
  • Paratype: Peden, A. E. 1973. Copeia. 1973 (2): 211.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabited a large vegetated spring and its effluent (Minckley et al. 1991, Page and Burr 2011).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: This species inhabited a large vegetated spring and its effluent (Minckley et al. 1991, Page and Burr 2011).

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Environment

benthopelagic; non-migratory; freshwater
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.005 - 0.005
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 0 (zero)

Comments: No occurrences remain.

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Global Abundance

Zero, no individuals known extant

Comments: Extinct.

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

See Copeia 1973:210-221, 250-263 for information on the biology of this species.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EX
Extinct

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
NatureServe

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Extinct because the only population was exterminated by a reservoir, and captive populations were genetically contaminated by western mosquitofish.

History
  • 1996
    Extinct
  • 1994
    Extinct
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Extinct
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Extinct
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Extinct
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NX - Presumed Extirpated

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GX - Presumed Extinct

Reasons: Historically occurred in one spring system in Texas; site was inundated by a reservoir, extirpating the species in the wild in 1968; former captive stocks were eliminated through contamination with mosquitofish in the early 1970s.

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Population

Population
No occurrences remain.

Extinct (Hubbs and Jensen 1984, USFWS 1987, Miller et al. 1989, Robins et al. 1991). See Minckley et al. (1991) for a detailed account of the history of this species and Goodenough Spring.
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Threats

Major Threats
Its habitat was inundated by the Amistad Reservoir, extirpating the species in its natural range.
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Comments: Habitat was inundated by Amistad Reservoir, extirpating species in its natural range.

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Extinct (EX)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is extinct and does not require protection or management, monitoring, or research action.
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Wikipedia

Amistad gambusia

The Amistad gambusia (Gambusia amistadensis) was a small fish known only to occur in Goodenough Spring, Val Verde County, Texas, a tributary of the Rio Grande. This species was eliminated in the wild when construction of the Amistad Reservoir in 1968 submerged Goodenough Spring under approximately 70 feet of water. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) listed the Amistad gambusia as endangered in 1980, at which time it occurred only in captivity. The two captive populations, held by the University of Texas System and the Dexter National Fish Hatchery in New Mexico, died or were eliminated through hybridization and predation. The FWS ruled the Amistad gambusia extinct in 1987, and removed it from the endangered species list.

References[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Subgenus Arthrophallus, senilis species group (Rauchenberger 1989). See Rauchenberger (1989) for a study of the interrelationships of the subgenera and species groups within the genus Gambusia.

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