Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults found mostly in estuaries and lagoons, and sometimes up rivers in nearly fresh waters. They occur in the lower parts of rivers in freshwater or brackish water and in coastal seas (Ref. 12693, 48635). Juveniles may occur in dense aggregations (Ref. 9801). Feed on crustaceans, mollusks and fishes. Marketed mostly fresh. Spines associated with anterior fins have potent venom.
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Distribution

Indo-West Pacific: west and south coasts of India and off Sri Lanka eastward along the coasts of Bangladesh and Myanmar, through the Indo-Australian Archipelago and the Philippines as far as Papua New Guinea.
  • Gomon, J.R. 1984 Plotosidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 3. (Ref. 3478)
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Indo-West Pacific: west coast of India east to Philippines and New Guinea, south to northern Australia.
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

150 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3478))
  • Gomon, J.R. 1984 Plotosidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 3. (Ref. 3478)
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Maximum size: 1500 mm TL
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Diagnostic Description

A plain dusky-brown species with a black dorsal fin tip. Shows banded pattern at night. Distinguished from adult Plotosus lineatus by its long barbels on the nostrils that can reach pass the eyes.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 4

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 4
 
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Migration

Amphidromous. Refers to fishes that regularly migrate between freshwater and the sea (in both directions), but not for the purpose of breeding, as in anadromous and catadromous species. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.Characteristic elements in amphidromy are: reproduction in fresh water, passage to sea by newly hatched larvae, a period of feeding and growing at sea usually a few months long, return to fresh water of well-grown juveniles, a further period of feeding and growing in fresh water, followed by reproduction there (Ref. 82692).
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs in the inshore waters (Ref. 75154). Feeds on benthic animals and fish (Ref. 3478).
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Diseases and Parasites

Heteronsentis Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
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