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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds not resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins entire (use magnification), Needle-like leaf margins finely serrulate (use magnification or slide your finger along the leaf), Leaf apex acute, Leaves < 5 cm long, Leaves > 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves grey-green, Leaves blue-green, Leaves not blue-green, Needle-like leaves triangular, Needle-like leaves not twisted, Needle-like leaf habit erect, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 2, Needle-like leaf sheath early deciduous, Twigs glabrous, Twigs viscid, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones < 5 cm long, Seed cones bearing a scarlike umbo, Umbo with obvious prickle, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds gray, Seeds wingless, Seed wings narrower than body, Seed shell papery.
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Stephen C. Meyers

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Type Information

Holotype for Pinus cembroides var. remota Little
Catalog Number: US 3067911
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. L. Little Jr. & D. S. Correll
Year Collected: 1963
Locality: 30 mi N of del rio, 13 mi. S of Loma Alta., Val Verde, Texas, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 1500 to 1500
  • Holotype: Little Jr., E. L. 1966. Wrightia. 3: 183.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The subpopulations of Pinus remota are almost all highly disjunct; the species has obviously retreated to isolated mountains. Its altitudinal range is 1,200-1,600(-1,850) m a.s.l. (on the Edwards Plateau in Texas it occurs considerably lower, the type collection is from 450 m). It is restricted to canyons or rocky mountain slopes, often on calcareous soil or limestone rock, on dry sites where Pinyon-Juniper woodland is not well developed and the pines often remain shrubby. Annual precipitation ranges from 300-500 mm, but is extremely variable from year to year. Frost is common in December and January. This species occasionally occurs with P. cembroides and more rarely with P. arizonica var. stormiae, common are Juniperus monosperma and J. ashei (in the northern part of the range), Quercus, Cercocarpus and semi-desert plants e.g. Agave lecheguilla, Opuntia and Fouquieria splendens. Phenology: time of pollen dispersal not certain, perhaps April (start of flushing and growth of pollen cones was observed in the type specimen collected 1 April, but at the lowest altitude of the species).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Source: IUCN

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pinus remota

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus remota

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Distribution limited to southwestern Texas and across the border in northeastern Mexico at 1,200-1,800 m altitude in semi-arid conditions.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
Pinus remota's extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are beyond the threatened thresholds. In the absence of any evidence of significant past, recent or ongoing decline, it is assessed as Least Concern.
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Source: IUCN

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Population

Population
This species is abundant, but occurs scattered over a very large area.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
No threats have been identified for this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Known from several protected areas; most subpopulations are in very remote areas.
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Wikipedia

Pinus remota

Pinus remota, commonly known as the Texas pinyon or papershell pinyon, is a pine in the pinyon pine group, native to North America.

Description[edit]

Pinus remota is a small tree or large shrub, reaching 3-10 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 40 cm. The bark is thick, rough and scaly. The leaves ('needles') are in mixed pairs and threes (mostly pairs), slender, 3-5 cm long, and dull gray-green, with stomata on both inner and outer surfaces. The cones are squat globose, 3-5 cm long and broad when closed, green at first, ripening yellow-buff when 18–20 months old, with only a small number of thin scales, with typically 5-12 fertile scales.

The cones open to 4-6 cm broad when mature, holding the seeds on the scales after opening. The seeds are 10-12 mm long, with a very thin shell, a white endosperm, and a vestigial 1-2 mm wing; they are dispersed by the Western Scrub Jay, which plucks the seeds out of the open cones. The jay, which uses the seeds as a food resource, stores many of the seeds for later use, and some of these stored seeds are not used and are able to grow into new trees.

Taxonomy[edit]

Texas pinyon was previously included in Mexican pinyon, only being discovered to be distinct in 1966 when US botanist Elbert L. Little noticed that the seed shells of some pinyons in Texas were very thin compared to those of some others. He treated it as a variety of Mexican pinyon, Pinus cembroides var. remota. Subsequent research found other differences, and it is now usually treated as a distinct species, probably more closely related to the Colorado pinyon P. edulis, which shares thin seed shells and needles mostly in pairs. Texas pinyon differs from both Mexican and Colorado pinyons in the very small, recessed umbo on the cone scales (larger and knob-like on other pinyons).

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The range is in western Texas, United States, on the south edge of the Edwards Plateau and the hills between Fort Stockton and Presidio, and in northeastern Mexico, mainly in Coahuila but also just into Chihuahua and Nuevo León. It occurs at low to moderate altitudes, from 450-700 m on the Edwards Plateau and from 1200-1800 m in the rest of its range. It is scarce, with small, scattered populations usually on dry, rocky sites and arroyos where bare rock lowers the likelihood of wildfire spreading easily.

Uses[edit]

The edible seeds are occasionally collected like those of other pinyons, and sold as pine nuts; however, in its barren, dry habitat, infrequent and small crops are normal, reducing its economic value. It is occasionally planted as an ornamental tree, where its remarkable tolerance of drought and even semi-desert conditions makes it valuable in hot, dry areas.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Conifer Specialist Group (1998). "Pinus remota". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2 June 2013. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Little (1966) first described this taxon as a variety of P. CEMBROIDES. Bailey & Hawksworth (1979) raised it to specific status.

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