The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Mill. 1768. In: Gard. Dict., ed. 8: Pinus No. 10.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • The Gardeners Dictionary: . . . eighth edition no. 10. 1768. (Gard. Dict. (ed. 8))
    1. Anderson, G. W. 1963. Sweetfern rust on hard pines. USDA Forest  Service, Pest Leaflet 79. 7 p.
    3. Andresen, J. W. 1957. Precocity of Pinus rigida Mill. Castanea  22:130-134.
    5. Boyce, J. S. 1961. Forest Pathology. 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, NY.
    7. Boyce, S. G. 1954. The salt spray community. Ecological Monographs  24:29-67.
    9. Collingwood, G. H., and W. D. Brush. 1978. Knowing your trees. Rev.  and ed. by D. Butcher. American Forestry Association. Washington, DC.  389 p.
    11. Craighead, F. C. 1950. Insect enemies of eastern forests. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 657. 679 p.
    13. Elias, T. S. 1980. The complete trees of North America field guide  and natural history. Outdoor Life Nature Books. Van Nostrand Reinhold,  NY. 948 p.
    15. Eyre, F. H. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters. Washington, DC. 148 p.
    17. Fowells, H. A. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington,  DC. 762 p.
    19. Guries, R. P., and F. T. Ledig. 1982. Genetic diversity and  population structure in pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.).  Evolution 36(2):387-402.
    21. Hartman, K. 1982. National register of big trees. American Forests  88(4):18-48.
    23. Hepting, G. H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the United  States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC.
    25. Illick, J. S., and J. E. Aughanbaugh. 1930. Pitch pine in  Pennsylvania. Research Bulletin 2, Pennsylvania Department of Forestry  and Waters. 108 p.
    27. Kuser, J. E., and F. T. Ledig. 1987. Provenance and progeny variation  in pitch pine from the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Forest Science  33(2):558-564.
    29. Ledig, F. T., and J. H. Fryer. 1974. Genetics of pitch pine. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Research Paper WO-27. Washington, DC. 14 p. 
    31. Ledig, F. T., and S. Little. 1979. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.):  Ecology, physiology, and genetics. In Pine barrens: ecosystems  and landscape. p. 347-371. R.T.T. Forman, ed., Academic Press, NY.
    33. Little, E. L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and  naturalized). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541.  Washington, DC. 375 p.
    35. Little, S. 1941. Calendar of seasonal aspects for New Jersey forest  trees. Pennsylvania Forest Leaves 31(4)A-2, 13-14.
    37. Little, S. 1959. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus  rigida). USDA Forest Service, Station, Paper 119. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA. 22 p.
    39. Little. S., and F. Mergen. 1966. External and internal changes  associated with basal-crook formation in pitch and shortleaf pines.  Forest Science 12:268-275.
    41. Little, S., and E. B. Moore. 1953. Severe burning treatment tested on  lowland pine sites. USDA Forest Service, Station Paper 64. Northeastern  Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA.
    43. Little, S., and H. A. Somes. 1956. Buds enable pitch and shortleaf  pines to recover from injury. USDA Forest Service, Station Paper 81.  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA.
    45. Little, S., and I. F. Trew. 1979. Pitch x loblolly pine hybrids:  loblollies for the North. Journal of Forestry 77:709-716.
    47. Little, S., and W. E. Wolf. 1980. Pitch x loblolly hybrids ... Fast  growing hard pines for Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Forests Jul-Aug:6-7. 
    49. McQuilkin, W. E. 1935. Root development of pitch pine, with some  comparative observations on shortleaf pine. Journal of Agricultural  Research 51(1l):983-1016.
    51. Moss, A. E. 1940. Effects on trees of wind-driven salt water. Journal  of Forestry 38:421-425.
    53. Schopmeyer, C. S. 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington,  DC. 883 p.
    55. Spalt, K. W., and W. E. Reifsnyder. 1962. Bark characteristics and  fire resistance: a literature survey. USDA Forest Service, Occasional  Paper 193. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA. 19 p. 
    57. Stone, E. L., Jr., and M. H. Stone. 1943. Dormant buds in certain  species of Pinus. American Journal of Botany 30:346-351.
    59. Stone, E. L. Jr., and M. H. Stone. 1954. Root collar sprouts in pine.  Journal of Forestry 52:487-491.
    61. Tepper, H. B. 1963. Leader growth of young pitch and shortleaf pines.  Forest Science 9:344-353.
    63. Wallace, R. H., and A. E. Moss. 1939. Salt spray damage from recent  New England hurricanes. National Shade Tree Conference Proceedings  15:112-119.


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