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BiologyFound on continental and insular shelves, mainly over sandy, shell, and coral bottoms. Feeds on small fishes, including pinfish (Sparidae) and porcupine fish. Preyed on by larger sharks. Viviparous (with a yolk-sac placenta), with 3 to 6 young per litter. Performs a 'hunch' display, with back arched, caudal lowered and head raised, as a possible threat display when confronted by divers. Utilized dried salted for human consumption.