Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found mainly in freshwater and estuaries, but also enter the sea (Ref. 4833). Also occur in canals, ditches and ponds (Ref. 12693). Found in clear to turbid streams with rock, gravel or sand bottoms (Ref. 2847). Encountered in medium to large-sized rivers of the lower Mekong (Ref. 12975). Feed on small insects, crustaceans and small fish. Grow to a much larger size in brackish water than in fresh water. Marketed fresh (Ref. 12693). Cannibalism is relatively common for this species (Ref. 48660).
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Distribution

Range Description

This widespread species is recorded throughout the Indo-west Pacific (east African coast to the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea and north to Japan and China (known from the Zhujiang (Pearl River) drainage including the Huanggang, Hanjiang, Rongjiang, Longjin he, Dongjiang, Beijiang, and Xijiang river systems, and also found in river mouths of Hainan Province) (Akihito and Meguro 1975, Allen 1991, Murdy and Shibukawa 2001, Pusey et al. 2004). In Manipur, India, it was not recorded before the 1960s, but is now common. Records from New Caledonia need to be verified - they are most likely another species.
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Southern Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Society Islands, north to Philippines, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia.
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Africa to Oceania: Red Sea and East Africa and most inland freshwater bodies over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Common in coastal and estuarine waters from austral Africa and Madagascar to India and south of China.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 7; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8 - 9; Analspines: 1; Analsoft rays: 8 - 9
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Size

Maximum size: 500 mm SL
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Max. size

50.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Feeds on small insects, crustaceans and small fish. Grows to a much larger size in brackish waters than in fresh waters.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Head flattened, lower jaw projecting; body pale without longitudinal lines (Ref. 4967). Dorsal fins with small spots forming longitudinal stripes (Ref. 2798). Pelvic fins jointed but attached to the body only from their anterior part. The body is brownish yellow with 5 to 6 dark and rounded spots on its sides. Some specimens living on dark substrates can be very dark also. Some living on very light substrates show an ivory coloration. Dorsal fins are light with brownish spots. Pelvic fins are grey. Pectorals and caudal are grey and often hyaline (Ref. 48660).
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Ecology

Habitat

Zambezi River Benthopelagic Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of benthopelagic species in the Zambezi River system of southern Africa. Benthopelagic river fish are found near the bottom of the water column, feeding on benthos and zooplankton

Nutrient levels in the Zambezi River are relatively low, especially in the upper Zambezi; in that reach, above Victoria Falls, most of the catchment drains Kalahari sands, whose nutrient levels are inherently low due to their aeolian formation; moreover, agricultural fertilizer addition throughout the Zambezi watershed is low, due to the shortage of capital available to farmers of this region.

Nitrate levels (as nitrogen) in the upper Zambezi are typically in the range of .01 to .03 milligrams per liter. Correspondingly electrical conductivity of the upper Zambezi is on the order of 75 micro-S per centimeter, due to the paucity of ion content. From the Luangwa River downstream nitrate levels elevate to .10 to .18 milligrams per liter, and electrical conductivity rises to a range of two to four times the upper Zambezi levels. Not surprisingly, pH, calcium ion concentration, bicarbonate and electrical conductivity are all higher in portions of the catchment where limestone soils predominate compared to granite.

There are a total of 190 known fish species present in the Zambezi River, including eel and shark taxa. The largest native benthopelagic fish in the Zambezi are the 170 cm North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), the 146 cm common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), the 150 cm Indo-Pacific tarpon (Megalops cyprinoides) and the introduced 120 cm rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species generally inhabits clear to turbid freshwater to estuarine habitats in rivers and streams with sand, gravel or rock substrate (Allen, 1991). In Australia and Southern Africa it is found in shallow sandy streams as well as floodplain lagoons, penetrating inland more than 300 kilometres (Pusey et al. 2004) and in Lake Chiuta in the headwaters of the Rovuma River system in Malawi. Relatively rapid seasonal migrations are undertaken during the dry season in the Northern Territory, Australia (Bishop et al, 2001). The species has a marine larval stage, but can breed in fresh water (small juveniles are present in high upstream reaches of rivers or in land-locked lagoons). It has been recorded breeding during the 'dry' season in northern Australia and in summer in South Africa.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine
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Depth range based on 22 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 11 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.2 - 8.5
  Temperature range (°C): 26.857 - 28.954
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.099 - 0.462
  Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 34.532
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.525 - 4.572
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.113 - 0.380
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.579 - 2.568

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.2 - 8.5

Temperature range (°C): 26.857 - 28.954

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.099 - 0.462

Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 34.532

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.525 - 4.572

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.113 - 0.380

Silicate (umol/l): 1.579 - 2.568
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Amphidromous. Refers to fishes that regularly migrate between freshwater and the sea (in both directions), but not for the purpose of breeding, as in anadromous and catadromous species. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.Characteristic elements in amphidromy are: reproduction in fresh water, passage to sea by newly hatched larvae, a period of feeding and growing at sea usually a few months long, return to fresh water of well-grown juveniles, a further period of feeding and growing in fresh water, followed by reproduction there (Ref. 82692).
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Trophic Strategy

Found mainly in freshwater and estuaries, but also enters the sea (Ref. 4833). Also occurs in canals, ditches and ponds (Ref. 12693). Found in clear to turbid streams with rock, gravel or sand bottoms (Ref. 2847). Encountered in medium to large-sized rivers of the lower Mekong (Ref. 12975). Feeds on small insects, crustaceans and small fish. Grows to a much larger size in brackish water than in fresh water. Cannibalism is relatively common for this species (Ref. 48660).
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Diseases and Parasites

Tetrarhynchus Disease 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Proteocephalus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Prosorhynchus Infestation 5. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Procerovum Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Posthodiplostomum Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Phyllodistomum Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Pallisentis Infestation 6. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Pallisentis Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Pallisentis Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Orientocreadium Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Opegaster Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Opegaster Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Opegaster Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Neochasmus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Lernaea Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Haplorchis Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Gnathostoma Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Genarchopsis Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Genarchopsis Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Erilepturus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Ergasilus Disease 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Echinorhynchus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Echinochasmus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Dactylogyrus Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Contracaecum Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Centrocestus Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Carneophallus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Capillaria Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Camallanus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Bothriocephalus Disease 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Azygia Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Anchor worm Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allocreadium Infestation 8. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allocreadium Infestation 3. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Allocreadium Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Glossogobius giuris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 39
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Glossogobius giuris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Glossogobius giuris giuris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Larson, H. & Britz, R.

Reviewer/s
Datta, N.C., Dey, S.C., Jha, B.R., Dahanukar, N., Vishwanath, W., Allen, D. & Hoese, D.

Contributor/s

Justification

This is a widespread species with no known major widespread threats and it is assessed as Least Concern. However, due to possible mis-identifications in some parts of the species' described range (e.g. in New Caledonia), further taxonomic work is required.


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Population

Population

This is a widespread species, and is common in many areas, though may not be abundant. In north-eastern Australia, this species appears to be patchily and temporarily variable in its distribution (Pusey, Kennard and Arthington 2004).


Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats

There are no major known threats to this species. Potential threats include activities that may which damage or modify the river systems in which this species occurs; e.g. the creation of dams which may adversely affect recruitment. Utilization as a food fish may be a localised threat.



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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

This species occurs in a number of protected areas in Australia and South Africa.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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Wikipedia

Awaous gutum

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Tank goby

A 1927 illustration of Glossogobius giuris

Glossogobius giuris, the Tank goby, is a species of goby native to fresh, marine and brackish waters from the Red Sea and East Africa through South Asia and the Indian Ocean to China, Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean. This species can also be found in the aquarium trade.[2]

Appearance, size and colouration[edit source | edit]

The head is depressed while the body takes on a compressed appearance towards to caudal fin. Normally brown or light brown with various darker brown spots and fleacks along the sides. Ranges in size from 40 to 50cm maximum (16-20 inches).

Habitat[edit source | edit]

This subtropical species is most often associated with estuarine habitats, although it is also found in marine water and can be found many kilometers inland in freshwater streams.

Reproduction[edit source | edit]

Lays eggs amongst submerged vegetation, where the eggs are guarded by both the male and the female.

Feeding[edit source | edit]

A carnivorous fish, it will eat any small fish and invertebrates it comes across.

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Larson, H. & Britz, R. 2012. Glossogobius giuris. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 August 2013.
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Glossogobius giuris" in FishBase. June 2013 version.
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