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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found in reef flats, lagoon and seaward reefs and sometimes in turbid waters subject to freshwater runoff. Swim in pairs. Omnivorous, feed on algae, coral polyps, crustaceans and worms (Ref. 5503). Oviparous (Ref. 205), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Stable monogamous pairs with both pair members jointly defending a feeding territory against other pairs (Ref. 58331), but often accompanies other species without being aggressive. Easily maintained in tanks.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is very widespread from Socotra south to Natal, South Africa across the Indo-Pacific to the Line and Gambier Islands in Polynesia, north to southern Japan and south to central New South Wales, Lord Howe and Rapa Iti (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). Its geographic range is estimated to be ~76 million km2, from values estimated by Jones et al. (2002) based on projections of distribution maps from Allen et al. (1998). It is found at depth of 1-30m.
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, northern Line Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan, south to Kimberleys (Western Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and Austral Islan
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Indo-Pacific: Red Sea (Ref. 5372) and East Africa to the Line and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to the Lord Howe and the Austral islands. Closely related to Chaetodon decussatus.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 22 - 25; Anal spines: 2 - 3; Analsoft rays: 19 - 22
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Size

Maximum size: 230 mm NG
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Max. size

23.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Inhabits reef flats and lagoon and shallow seaward reefs and sometimes in turbid waters subject to freshwater runoff. Hardly territorial and often accompanies other species without being agressive. Swims in pairs. Omnivorous, feeds on algae, coral polyps, crustaceans and worms (Ref. 5503). Easily maintained in tanks.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Black bands over head and tail (Ref. 48636).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs in most coral reef habitats, from inner coastal reef flats to outer seaward slopes. Occurs singly, in pairs, or in small groups. The diet consists of anemones, coral polyps, polychaete worms and algae. The species tolerates a wide range of ecological conditions including influx of freshwater near stream mouths and turbid water (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006).

This species rarely consumes coral on the Great Barrier Reef (Pratchett 2005), but does so frequently in the Seychelles (Graham et al. 2006). It has declined at Moorea between 1979 and 2003 (Berumen and Pratchett 2006), though the explanation for this is unknown, given that it is not thought to be reliant on live coral.

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth: 0 - 30m.
Recorded at 30 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Found in reef flats, lagoon and seaward reefs and sometimes in turbid waters subject to freshwater runoff. Swims in pairs. Omnivorous, feeds on algae, coral polyps, crustaceans and worms (Ref. 5503). Hardly territorial and often accompanies other species without being agressive. Easily maintained in tanks.
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 5 - 30 m (Ref. 58304)
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Depth range based on 92 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 64 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.4575 - 150
  Temperature range (°C): 24.633 - 29.336
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.016 - 0.678
  Salinity (PPS): 34.090 - 35.924
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.454 - 4.851
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.083 - 0.270
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.974 - 4.612

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.4575 - 150

Temperature range (°C): 24.633 - 29.336

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.016 - 0.678

Salinity (PPS): 34.090 - 35.924

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.454 - 4.851

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.083 - 0.270

Silicate (umol/l): 0.974 - 4.612
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Found in reef flats, lagoon and seaward reefs and sometimes in turbid waters subject to freshwater runoff. Swims in pairs. Omnivorous, feeds on algae, coral polyps, crustaceans and worms (Ref. 5503). Hardly territorial and often accompanies other species without being aggressive. Easily maintained in tanks.
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Diseases and Parasites

Uronema infection. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Stable monogamous pairs with both pair members jointly defending a feeding territory. Pelagic larvae settle to shallow (
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Chaetodon vagabundus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 29 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CACCCTCTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCTGGGATAGTGGGTACTGCCCTAAGTCTGCTCATTCGAGCAGAACTCAGCCAACCAGGCTCCCTCCTGGGCGACGACCAGATCTATAACGTAATTGTTACGGCGCATGCATTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATTGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTGATTCCTCTAATAATTGGAGCCCCAGATATAGCTTTTCCTCGGATAAATAACATGAGCTTTTGGCTCCTGCCCCCCTCCTTTTTCCTACTCCTTGCCTCTTCTGGCGTAGAGTCCGGGGCTGGTACTGGATGAACGGTTTATCCCCCACTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCACACGCCGGAGCATCCGTTGATCTAACCATCTTCTCCCTCCACCTCGCAGGAGTTTCCTCCATCCTTGGGGCAATTAACTTCATCACAACAATTCTCAACATGAAACCCCCTGCCATATCTCAGTACCAAACCCCTCTTTTCGTATGATCTGTTCTAATTACAGCTGTCCTGCTTCTCCTATCCCTACCCGTTCTTGCAGCCGGGATCACAATACTCCTTACAGATCGAAACCTCAATACAACCTTTTTCGACCCCGCAGGAGGGGGCGACCCTATTCTGTACCAACACCTG
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chaetodon vagabundus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 17
Specimens with Barcodes: 30
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Myers, R. & Pratchett, M.

Reviewer/s
Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
There have been declines in the abundance of Chaetodon vagabundus in some areas and research is required to understand apparent reliance on live corals. Given that this species is very widespread and typically abundant, it is unlikely that localized declines have substantially affected the global population. It is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This species is very abundant (e.g., mean of 1.3 individuals per 200 m2 in the northern Great Barrier Reef; Pratchett and Berumen 2008) throughout much of its geographical range. There have been slight declines in abundance recorded in Moorea, French Polynesia, between 1979 and 2003 (Berumen and Pratchett 2006), but it is otherwise stable (Pratchett et al. 2006).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
While this species has exhibited long-term declines in Moorea, there is apparent no reason why this species should depend on live coral. There do not appear to be any other major threats to this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There appear to be no species-specific conservation measures in place. This species is present within marine protected areas. Research is required to confirm or understand the apparent reliance on live corals for this species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: unknown; price reliability:
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Wikipedia

Vagabond butterflyfish

Not to be confused with the Indian Vagabond Butterflyfish (C. decussatus).

The Vagabond Butterflyfish, Chaetodon vagabundus, is a species of butterflyfish (family Chaetodontidae). It is found in the Indo-Pacific region from the Red Sea and off East Africa as far east as the Tuamotu Islands, north to southern Japan and south to the Austral Islands.[2]

It belongs to the large subgenus Rabdophorus which might warrant recognition as a distinct genus. In this group, it almost certainly is a rather close relative of the Threadfin Butterflyfish (C. auriga) and the Indian Vagabond Butterflyfish (C. decussatus). The latter might be closer to the Threadfin Butterflyfish; as C. vagabundus has yielded abnormal mtDNA 12S rRNA sequence data this is hard to say however. The C. auriga species group shares the characteristic pattern of two areas of ascending and descending oblique lines; species differ conspicuously in hindpart coloration.[3]

Chaetodon vagabundus are found in reef flats, lagoons and seaward reefs, and sometimes in turbid waters subject to freshwater runoff. They are omnivorous, known to feed on algae, coral polyps, crustaceans and worms. These oviparous, monogamous fish form stable pairs with both pair members jointly defending a feeding territory against other pairs. However they often accompany other species without being aggressive. By the standards of their genus, they are easily maintained in tanks.[2]

Footnotes[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Myers, R. & Pratchett, M. 2010. Chaetodon vagabundus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 September 2013.
  2. ^ a b FishBase (2008)
  3. ^ Fessler & Westneat (2007), Hsu et al. (2007)

References[edit source | edit]

  • Fessler, Jennifer L. & Westneat, Mark W. (2007): Molecular phylogenetics of the butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae): Taxonomy and biogeography of a global coral reef fish family. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 45(1): 50–68. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.05.018 (HTML abstract)
  • FishBase (2008): Chaetodon vagabundus. Version of 2008-JUL-24. Retrieved 2008-SEP-01.
  • Hsu, Kui-Ching; Chen, Jeng-Ping & Shao, Kwang-Tsao (2007): Molecular phylogeny of Chaetodon (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae) in the Indo-West Pacific: evolution in geminate species pairs and species groups. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 14: 77-86. PDF fulltext
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