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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occur in lagoon and seaward reefs, usually in pairs in coral rich areas (Ref. 1602). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed mainly on coral polyps and anemones, but also on small invertebrates and algae (Ref. 1602). Largest species in the genus (Ref. 9710). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is widely distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific, from the East African coast and the Red Sea in the west to Polynesia, including the Hawaiian Islands (USA), from southern Japan in the north to southern New South Wales and Lord Howe Island (Australia) in the south (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). It is found at depths of 2-171 m.

Very widespread: Range size ~78.6 million km2, from values estimated by Jones et al. (2002) based on projection of distribution maps from Allen et al. (1998).

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Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian, Marquesan, and Ducie islands, north to southern Japan, south to the Great Barrier Reef and Lord Howe Island. Throughout Micronesia.
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and Gambier Islands.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 24 - 27; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 19 - 22
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm TL
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Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5372)); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 72479)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Occurs in lagoon and seaward reefs, usually in pairs in coral rich areas. Feeds mainly on coral polyps and anemones, but also feeds on small invertebrates and algae.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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The dorsal caudal and anal fins are bright yellow. Body color is white with a black elliptical marking along the edge of the posterior portion of the back extending across the caudal peduncle to the base of the posterior anal fin rays. A series of thin vertical black lines run across the sides, and a prominent vertical black band runs across the eye.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is generally associated with coral-rich areas of lagoons and seaward reefs. It usually occurs in pairs, but solitary individuals and small aggregations are sometimes encountered (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). This species does occasionally feed on coral, but mostly consumes non-coral sessile invertebrates, such as Spirobranchus, zooanthids and clams (Pratchett 2005). Recruits have been found in areas with rich coral growth, but their reliance on live coral is currently unknown. This is the largest of all butterflyfishes, and there are unpublished reports that it may live >50 years. Because it is very long-lived, effects of recruitment failure may not be apparent for decades after coral depletion.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 171 m (Ref. 1602)
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Depth range based on 52 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 45 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.61 - 85
  Temperature range (°C): 25.709 - 28.954
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.050 - 3.148
  Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 35.312
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.005 - 4.727
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.412
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 7.439

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.61 - 85

Temperature range (°C): 25.709 - 28.954

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.050 - 3.148

Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 35.312

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.005 - 4.727

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.412

Silicate (umol/l): 0.567 - 7.439
 
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Depth: 2 - 171m.
From 2 to 171 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Occurs in lagoon and seaward reefs, usually in pairs in coral rich areas (Ref. 1602). Feeds mainly on coral polyps and anemones, but also feeds on small invertebrates and algae (Ref. 1602). Largest species in the genus (Ref. 9710).
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Trophic Strategy

Occur inshore (Ref. 75154). Adult specimens are quite shy thus difficult to approach at close range.
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Diseases and Parasites

Hurleytrematoides Infestation 7. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Nahhas, F.M. and A. Grewal 1999 Digenetic trematodes from marine fishes of Fiji: Subfamily Hurleytrematinae (family Monorchiidae): A review and description of four new species of Hurleytrematoides. p.617-631. In Séret B. and J.-Y. Sire (eds.) Proc. 5th Indo-Pac. Fish Conf., Nouméa, 1997. Paris: Soc. Fr. Ichtyol. (Ref. 48836)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48836&speccode=380 External link.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 10 years (wild)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chaetodon lineolatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Myers, R. & Pratchett, M.

Reviewer/s
Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific and is the largest of the butterflyfishes. It is collected for the aquarium trade and captured in artisanal fisheries. However these are not thought to be causing substantial declines to the global population.This species also appears to be reliant on live corals for recruitment. Further research is recommended into this aspect of its biology. This species is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This species is generally common. It settles in areas of rich coral growth (Pratchett et al. 2008), but there have not been any documented declines in its abundance.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
This species has been seen to recruit to live coral, but there have been no documented declines in abundance associated with extensive coral depletion (Pratchett et al. 2008). Adults are associated with coral reef habitats but do not rely on live coral for food. Because it is very long-lived, effects of recruitment failure may not be apparent for decades after coral depletion. There is no data on effects of aquarium collections on this species. It is also targeted by artisanal fishers, however this is not thought to be a major threat. There do not appear to any other major threats to this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Chaetodon lineolatus. This species is present within marine protected areas. Ongoing monitoring of catches by aquarium collectors is required. Research is required to confirm or understand the apparent reliance on live corals for this species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: unknown; price reliability:
  • Miyasaka, A. 1993 A database on scientific and common names of fishes exported from Hawaii. The information was derived from the above mentioned database. A printout of the names is also available from the State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, 1151 Punchbowl Street, Honolulu, Hawaii. (Ref. 5358)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5358&speccode=4306 External link.
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Wikipedia

Lined butterflyfish

Lined Butterflyfish at the Red Sea, Egypt

The Lined Butterflyfish (Chaetodon lineolatus) is a butterflyfish (family Chaetodontidae), one of the largest species in the genus Chaetodon.[1] They have a wide range from the Red Sea to South Africa and as far east as southern Japan and Hawaii.[2]

Lined butterflyfish may grow up to 30 cm (nearly 12 in) long, which among Chaetodon is matched only by the Saddle Butterflyfish (C. ephippium). They are white in color, with thin black vertical bars which join a thick black band at the base of the tail and dorsal fin. The tail, dorsal, and anal fins are yellow.[1]

This uncommon fish is found in pairs or swimming alone, or occasionally in spawning aggregations. It occurs between 2 and 50 m depth, in coral-rich areas of reefs and lagoons. Coral polyps, small anemones, algae and invertebrates make up their diet.[3]

It belongs to the large subgenus Rabdophorus which might warrant recognition as a distinct genus. In this group, it seems to be member of a lineage also containing species such as the Spot-naped Butterflyfish (C. oxycephalus), or the peculiar Black-wedged Butterflyfish (C. falcula) and Pacific Double-saddle Butterflyfish or "False Falcula" (C. ulietensis). These four differ wildly in shape, but all have bluish vertical lines on a white body with yellow behind, and black on back and caudal peduncle in addition to the typical eyestripe of Chaetodon. The Blue-cheeked Butterflyfish (C. semilarvatus) seems to be a far more basal lineage of Rabdophorus relative to them, but it also has the tell-tale blue vertical lines.[4]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lieske & Myers (2004)
  2. ^ FishBase [2008]
  3. ^ Lieske & Myers (2004), FishBase (2008)
  4. ^ Fessler & Westneat (2007), Hsu et al. (2007)

References[edit]

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