Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs usually over sandy bottoms in shallow coastal waters, being relatively abundant in the surf zone. During summer months the fish move to their nursery and feeding grounds in river estuaries.
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Western Atlantic: Florida, USA and Gulf of Mexico to Bay of Campeche, Mexico.
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Western Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9 - 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 25 - 29; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 10 - 12
  • Chao, N.L. 2003 Scianidae. Croakers. p. 1583-1653. In K.E. Carpenter (ed.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Vol. 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals. (Ref. 51721)
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Size

Max. size

63.5 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 2,780 g (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 58079)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
  • Nemeth, D.J., J.B. Jackson, A.R. Knapp and C.H. Purtlebaugh 2006 Age and growth of sand seatrout (Cynoscion arenarius) in the estuarine waters of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Gulf of Mexico Sci. 2006(1/2):45-60. (Ref. 58079)
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Maximum size: 450 mm ---
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Diagnostic Description

Colour uniform silvery grey above, without conspicuous spots, silvery below. Pelvic and anal fins pale to yellowish. A faint dark area at bases and axial of pectoral fins. Inside opercle darkish, often visible externally. Mouth large, oblique, lower jaw slightly projecting. Upper jaw with a pair of large canine-like teeth at tip. Lower jaw with a row of widely spaced larger inner-row teeth, gradually increasing in size posteriorly. Chin without barbel or pore, snout with 2 marginal pores. Gas bladder with a pair of horn-like anterior appendages. Soft portion of dorsal fin with few small scales rows at base between soft fin rays (Ref 51721).
  • Chao, N.L. 2003 Scianidae. Croakers. p. 1583-1653. In K.E. Carpenter (ed.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Vol. 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals. (Ref. 51721)
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Type Information

Type for Cynoscion arenarius
Catalog Number: USNM 89395
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Year Collected: 1917
Locality: Off entrance to harbor, Galveston, Texas, Texas, United States, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic
Vessel: Grampus
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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Environment

demersal; brackish; marine
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Depth range based on 23 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 17 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 54
  Temperature range (°C): 22.006 - 23.636
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.325 - 1.990
  Salinity (PPS): 35.652 - 36.251
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.658 - 4.893
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.110 - 0.424
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 2.629

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 54

Temperature range (°C): 22.006 - 23.636

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.325 - 1.990

Salinity (PPS): 35.652 - 36.251

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.658 - 4.893

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.110 - 0.424

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 2.629
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cynoscion arenarius

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

CTCTACCTAGTTTTCGGTGCATGAGCCGGGATAGTAGGCACAGCTTTA---AGCCTTCTAATCCGAGCAGAACTAAGTCAACCAGGCGCCCTCCTTGGAGAT---GACCAGGTCTATAACGTAATTGTYACGGCGCACGCCTTCGTTATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCCATCATGATTGGAGGGTTTGGGAACTGACTTGTACCACTAATG---ATCGGGGCCCCTGACATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAATATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTCCCCCCTTCTTTCCTCCTACTCCTAACCTCTTCAGGGGTAGAGGCAGGGGCCGGGACAGGATGAACAGTCTACCCCCCACTCGCGGGGAACCTGGCACACGCAGGGGCCTCCGTCGATTTA---GCCATTTTCTCCCTACACCTCGCAGGTGTCTCATCAATTTTAGGGGCCATTAACTTTATTACAACAATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCTGCTATTTCTCAATATCAAACACCCTTATTTGTGTGAGCGGTTCTAATTACAGCTGTTCTCCTGCTACTCTCGCTCCCTGTCTTAGCTGCC---GGCATTACTATGCTTCTAACAGACCGCAATTTAAATACAACCTTCTTCGACCCGGCAGGGGGAGGAGACCCTATTCTTTAYCAACACCTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cynoscion arenarius

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • FAO 1986 Fishery statistics - catches and landings. FAO Yearb. 62:480 p.
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Wikipedia

Sand Seatrout

Cynoscion arenarius (sand seatrout, sand weakfish or, as it is also known, white trout) is a common species of drum fish found in the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic Ocean. While not especially popular or targeted, it is still known as a sport fish and is often caught by anglers of these waters. Research in biochemistry suggests that the sand seatrout may actually be a subspecies of the weakfish that lacks spots.[1] Often confused with the silver seatrout, the sand seatrout is larger and more often found inshore than its similar-appearing offshore cousin. It also has a slight yellow hue, whereas the silver seatrout is more silver overall. It averages at one pound and is reportedly a good fish for eating.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hoese, H. Dickson, and Richard H. Moore. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Texas, Louisiana, and Adjacent Waters. 2nd Edition. Texas A&M University Press, 1998.
  2. ^ Dunaway, Vic. Sport Fish of Florida. 1st Edition. Florida Sportsman, 2007.
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