IUCN threat status:

Least Concern (LC)

Comprehensive Description

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Biology

Occurs in coastal waters, estuaries, large lakes and rivers (Ref. 5723). Lake-dwelling populations appear to be non-migratory, while those found in streams or brackish water move considerable distances to reach or leave spawning sites (Ref. 27547). Semi-anadromous populations forage in estuaries, lower courses of rivers, backwaters and lakes (Ref. 59043). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on planktonic crustaceans and insects (Ref. 1998); also plant material (Ref. 27547) and fishes (Ref. 58426). Does not usually feed during its spawning run (Ref. 28219, 28860, 28861). Migratory forms are observed to live longer than fresh water forms (Ref. 1998). Spawns in deep pools on sand and gravel (Ref. 59043). Flesh is said to be tasty (Ref. 1998).

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