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Overview

Brief Summary

Five-bearded rocklings have five barbels on their head, one on the chin and four on the snout. Although these fish look slippery, they do have scales which are very small and delicate. Five-bearded rocklings are predator fish. They hunt mostly shrimp, as well as small fish. In turn, young rocklings are often consumed by gulls and terns. There are more species of rocklings living in the North Sea, including the three and four-bearded rockling. But the five-bearded rockling is the most common and not surprisingly referred to as the common rockling.
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Comprehensive Description

Biology

A resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612). Generally close to the shore, not descending to great depths beyond the limits of the distribution of green algae (20 m), preferring rock bottoms but also living on sandy, muddy, and shell gravel bottoms. Feed mainly on crustaceans, sometimes also on algae, polychaetes, gastropods and occasionally, small fish. Occurs in temperatures ranging from 8 to 24°C (Ref. 4944).
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Description

 The five-bearded rockling Ciliata mustela is a long, slender fish that may reach up to 25 cm in length. Its body is covered with smooth, scaleless skin. The five-bearded rockling has notably long dorsal and anal fins. It is easily recognisable by the five barbels around its mouth, two above each nostril and one on the lower jaw. The mouth itself is small and the corners of the mouth barely extend past the eyes. It is dark brown in colour.Ciliata mustela can be distinguished from Gaidropsarus mediterraneus by the five barbels around its mouth, while Gaidropsarus mediterraneus only has three.
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Distribution

Northeast Atlantic: Lisbon north to Finnmark, around the British Isles, in the Skagerrak and Kattegat and Iceland.
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Eastern North Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Analspines: 0
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Size

Maximum size: 250 mm TL
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Max. size

25.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371)); max. reported age: 3 years (Ref. 1371)
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Diagnostic Description

Head relatively small, more than five times in SL. No lobed fold of skin above the upper lip. First fin ray followed by a row of small, fleshy filaments. Dark brown dorsally, reddish to blackish grading to pale gray-brown ventrally (Ref. 1371). One barbel on the lower jaw and four on the snout (Ref. 35388).
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 17 - 22 m (Ref. 57178)
  • Ocean Biogeographic Information System 2006 OBIS-extracted Depth Data. Harvested by E.Agbayani July 2006 at www.iobis.org. (Ref. 57178)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Depth range based on 2692 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 399 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -9 - 220
  Temperature range (°C): 7.150 - 12.243
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.055 - 12.829
  Salinity (PPS): 32.748 - 35.378
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.854 - 6.507
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.353 - 0.750
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.022 - 8.436

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -9 - 220

Temperature range (°C): 7.150 - 12.243

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.055 - 12.829

Salinity (PPS): 32.748 - 35.378

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.854 - 6.507

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.353 - 0.750

Silicate (umol/l): 2.022 - 8.436
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 The five-bearded rockling is a demersal species that inhabits shallow water down to 20 m, usually over sand and under intertidal rocks.
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Depth: 0 - 20m.
Recorded at 20 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Associations

Known predators

Ciliata mustella (Ciliata mustela five-bearded rockling) is prey of:
Aves
Podocotyle staffordi
Hemiuris communis
Derogenes varicus
Cestoda

Based on studies in:
Portugal (Estuarine)
Scotland (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
  • L. Saldanha, Estudio Ambiental do Estuario do Tejo, Publ. no. 5(4) (CNA/Tejo, Lisbon, 1980).
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Known prey organisms

  • Hall SJ, Raffaelli D (1991) Food-web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. J Anim Ecol 60:823–842
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
  • L. Saldanha, Estudio Ambiental do Estuario do Tejo, Publ. no. 5(4) (CNA/Tejo, Lisbon, 1980).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Eggs and larvae are pelagic.
  • Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba 1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ciliata mustela

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
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Wikipedia

Fivebeard rockling

The fivebeard rockling (Ciliata mustela) is a coastal fish of the Lotidae family. Its body is elongated and up to 20 cm (7.9 in) long. It lives in shallow water on muddy and sandy seafloors, sometimes in the littoral zone. It is sometimes found by turning over rocks and debris on mudflats at low tide.[1]

In colour it has a dark brown back, with a reddish or blackish underside merging with a pale gray-brown. Its "five beard" name comes from the short, fleshy barbels around its mouth.

The fivebeard rockling lives usually close to the shore, not normally deeper than 20 m (66 ft). It prefers a rocky bottom but can also be found on sandy, muddy or gravelly seafloors. It feeds mainly on crustaceans, sometimes also on algae, polychaetes, gastropods and occasionally, small fish. It is found in water temperatures between 8 and 24°C (46 and 75°F), on European Atlantic coasts.[2]

References[edit]

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