Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (3) (learn more)

Overview

Distribution

Occurrence in North America

     AZ  CO  NM  TX  MEXICO

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Southwestern white pine has a limited distribution.  It is found in the
mountains of western Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and southwestern
Colorado [15,16,50].  It extends south along the mountains to central
Mexico; most of its distribution is in Mexico [44,50,65].
  • 15.  Correll, Donovan S.; Johnston, Marshall C. 1970. Manual of the vascular        plants of Texas. Renner, TX: Texas Research Foundation. 1881 p.  [4003]
  • 16.  Davila, Vidal, Jr. 1989. Tamarisk eradication efforts at Gaudalupe        Mountains National Park, Texas. In: Kunzmann, Michael R.; Johnson, R.        Roy; Bennett, Peter, technical coordinators. Tamarisk control in        southwestern United States; 1987 September 2-3; Tucson, AZ. Special        Report No. 9. Tucson, AZ: National Park Service, Cooperative National        Park Resources Studies Unit, School of Renewable Natural Resources:        28-32.  [11344]
  • 44.  Krugman, Stanley L.; Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Pinaceae--pine family.        In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in        the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 598-637.  [1380]
  • 50.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1975. Rare and local conifers in the United        States. Conservation Research Rep. No. 19. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p.  [15691]
  • 65.  Steinhoff, R. J.; Andresen, J. W. 1971. Geographic variation in Pinus        flexilis and Pinus strobiformis and its bearing on their taxonomic        status. Silvae Genetica. 20: 159-167.  [2233]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    7  Lower Basin and Range
   11  Southern Rocky Mountains
   12  Colorado Plateau
   13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the term: dehiscent

Southwestern white pine is a native, evergreen conifer with an open,
irregular crown. It can grow to 90 feet (27 m) tall with diameters to
3.2 feet (1 m) [15,53,64]. The bark is thin, rough, and furrowed
[15,54]. Branches are long and horizontal to pendant [53]. Needles
are 2.4 to 4 inches (6-10 cm) long in fascicles of five [53]. The cones
are 2.8 to 9.8 inches (7-25 cm) long with reflexed, thick scales; cones
are dehiscent when mature [15,46]. Seeds are essentially wingless and 0.4
to 0.5 inch (10-12 mm) long [15,53].
  • 15.  Correll, Donovan S.; Johnston, Marshall C. 1970. Manual of the vascular        plants of Texas. Renner, TX: Texas Research Foundation. 1881 p.  [4003]
  • 46.  Lanner, Ronald M. 1983. Trees of the Great Basin: A natural history.        Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 215 p.  [1401]
  • 53.  Perry, Jesse P., Jr. 1991. The pines of Mexico and Central America.        Portland, OR: Timber Press. 231 p.  [20328]
  • 54.  Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees & shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas including        Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park,        TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p.  [6130]
  • 64.  Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas        Monthly Press. 372 p.  [11708]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins entire (use magnification), Leaf apex acute, Leaves < 5 cm long, Leaves > 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves blue-green, Leaves not blue-green, Leaves white-striped, Needle-like leaves triangular, Needle-like leaves not twisted, Needle-like leaf habit drooping, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 5, Needle-like leaf sheath early deciduous, Twigs glabrous, Twigs pubescent, Twigs viscid, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones > 5 cm long, Seed cones bearing a scarlike umbo, Umbo with obvious prickle, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds red, Seeds brown, Seeds wingless, Seed wings narrower than body.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

Stephen C. Meyers

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Pinus ayacahuite Ehrenberg var. brachyptera G.R. Shaw; P. ayacahuite var. reflexa (Engelmann) Voss; P. ayacahuite var. strobiformis (Engelmann) Lemmon; P. flexilis E.James var. reflexa Engelmann; P. reflexa (Engelmann) Engelmann
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Arizona Mountains Forests Habitat

This taxon is found in the Arizona Mountain Forests, which extend from the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona to south of the Mogollon Plateau into portions of southwestern Mexico and eastern Arizona, USA. The species richness in this ecoregion is moderate, with vertebrate taxa numbering 375 species. The topography consists chiefly of steep foothills and mountains, but includes some deeply dissected high plateaus. Soil types have not been well defined; however, most soils are entisols, with alfisols and inceptisols in upland areas. Stony terrain and rock outcrops occupy large areas on the mountains and foothills.

The Transition Zone in this region (1980 to 2440 m in elevation) comprises a strong Mexican fasciation, including Chihuahua Pine (Pinus leiophylla) and Apache Pine (P. engelmannii) and unique varieties of Ponderosa Pine (P. ponderosa var. arizonica). Such forests are open and park-like and contain many bird species from Mexico seldom seen in the U.S.. The Canadian Zone (above 2000 m) includes mostly Rocky Mountain species of mixed-conifer communities such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmanni), Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa), and Corkbark Fir (A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica). Dwarf Juniper (Juniperus communis) is an understory shrubby closely associated with spruce/fir forests. Exposed sites include Chihuahua White Pine (Pinus strobiformis), while disturbed north-facing sites consists primarily of Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) or Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides).

There are a variety of mammalian species found in this ecoregion, including the endemic Arizona Gray Squirrel (Sciurus arizonensis), an herbivore who feeds on a wide spectrum of berries, bark and other vegetable material. Non-endemic mammals occurring in the ecoregion include: the Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys spectabilis NT); Desert Pocket Gopher (Geomys arenarius NT). In addition, there is great potential for restoring Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus) and Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) populations in the area because of its remoteness and juxtaposition to other ecoregions where these species were formerly prevalent.

There are few amphibians found in the Arizona mountain forests. Anuran species occurring here are: Red-spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus); Southwestern Toad (Anaxyrus microscaphus); New Mexico Spadefoot Toad (Spea multiplicata); Woodhouse's Toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii); Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens); Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis VU); Madrean Treefrog (Hyla eximia), a montane anuran found at the northern limit of its range in this ecoregion; Boreal Chorus Frog (Anaxyrus woodhousii); Western Chorus Frog (Pseudacris triseriata); and Canyon Treefrog (Hyla arenicolor). The Jemez Mountains Salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus NT) is an ecoregion endemic, found only in the Jemez Mountains of Los Alamos and Sandoval counties, New Mexico. Another salamander occurring in the ecoregion is the Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum).

A number of reptilian taxa occur in the Arizona mountains forests, including: Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum NT), often associated with cacti or desert scrub type vegetation; Narrow-headed Garter Snake (Thamnophis rufipunctatus), a near-endemic found chiefly in the Mogollon Rim area; Sonoran Mud Turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense NT).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© C. Michael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund

Supplier: C. Michael Hogan

Trusted

Article rating from 2 people

Average rating: 3.0 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Pinus strobiformis is a montane pine of mesic sites, its altitudinal range is 1,900-3,500 m a.s.l. It occurs on sites with relatively deep, humus-rich though often rocky soils, especially on north-facing slopes or along mountain streams. It grows in small, pure stands within pine or pine-oak forest, but more commonly it is mixed with P. arizonica, P. engelmannii, P. leiophylla var. chihuahuana, P. durangensis, P. lumholtzii, and/or various species of Quercus and Arbutus. In a more mesic forest type, it is associated with Abies and Pseudotsuga, and at the highest altitudes with P. hartwegii. The climate in the Sierra Madre Occidental is characterized by summer rains (thunderstorms) as well as winter precipitation; winter snows are common at the higher altitudes.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: mesic, shrubs, tree

Southwestern white pine is widespread in mesic sites on ridges, slopes,
and canyons of montane zones [15].  The best growth of this species
occurs on moist, cool sites with deep soil [14,53].  The climate is
semiarid, characterized by mild winters and warm summers.  There are two
wet seasons:  July to September and December to March [2,10].  Average
precipitation ranges from 19.2 to 45 inches (487-1,143 mm) per year
[25,27,57].

Southwestern white pine occurs in ravines or on mesic lower slopes at
5,000 feet (1,525 m) in southeastern Arizona and goes up to timberline
in southwestern Colorado [52,76].  It is typically found at elevations
from 6,000 to 10,000 feet (1,830-3,048 m) [17,52].  Southwestern white
pine often occurs on north- to east-facing slopes, but it has been
reported on all aspects [1,11,17,57,71].

Southwestern white pine is found on sites with loamy soil textures
ranging from shallow, gravelly loams to deep, sandy loams to stony
silty clay loams [23,30,32,40].

Two to nine conifer species occur in the southwestern mixed-conifer
forest type.  Their proportions vary depending on site characteristics
[37,48].  Some associated species not mentioned in Distribution and
Occurrence are listed below.  Associated tree species are New Mexico
locust (Robinia neomexicana), Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii), and
silverleaf oak (Quercus hypoleucoides) [14].  Associated shrubs are
mountain snowberry (Symphoricarpos oreophilus), bush oceanspray
(Holodiscus dumosus), Arizona honeysuckle (Lonicera arizonica), and
Fendler ceanothus (Ceanothus fendleri) [8,14,23,57].  Other associated
plants are Arizona fescue (Festuca arizonica), screwleaf muhly
(Muhlenbergia virescens), pine dropseed (Blepharoneuron tricholepsis),
Arizona wheatgrass (Elymus arizonicus), and western yarrow (Achillea
lanulosa) [8,23,51].
  • 1.  Ahlstrand, Gary M. 1979. Preliminary report on the ecology of fire        study, Guadalupe Mountains and Carlsbad Caverns National Parks. In:        Genoways, Hugh H.; Baker, Robert J., eds. Biological investigations in        the Guadalupe Mountains National Park: Proceedings of a symposium; 1975        April 4-5; Lubbock, TX. Proceedings and Transactions Series No. 4.        Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service:        31-44.  [16015]
  • 10.  Barton, Andrew M. 1992. Factors controlling lower elevational limits of        plants: responses of pines to drought in the Chiricahua Mountains,        Arizona. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane        A.; [and others]
  • 11.  Benkman, Craig W.; Balda, Russell P.; Smith, Christopher C. 1984.        Adaptations for seed dispersal and the compromises due to seed predation        in limber pine. Ecology. 65(2): 632-642.  [429]
  • 14.  Bowers, Janice E.; McLaughlin, Steven P. 1987. Flora and vegetation of        the Rincon Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. Desert Plants. 8(2): 50-94.        [495]
  • 15.  Correll, Donovan S.; Johnston, Marshall C. 1970. Manual of the vascular        plants of Texas. Renner, TX: Texas Research Foundation. 1881 p.  [4003]
  • 17.  DeVelice, Robert L.; Ludwig, John A. 1983. Forest habitat types south of        the Mogollon Rim, Arizona and New Mexico. Final Report. Cooperative        Agreement No. 28-K2-240 between U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station and New        Mexico State University. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University. 47        p.  [780]
  • 2.  Ahlstrand, Gary M. 1980. Fire history of a mixed conifer forest in        Guadalupe Mountains National Park. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich,        John H., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the fire history        workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort        Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 4-7.  [16035]
  • 23.  Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J. 1989. Production and        utilization of herbaceous plants in small clearcuts in an Arizona mixed        conifer forest. Res. Note RM-494. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station. 5 p.  [10543]
  • 25.  Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thorud, David B. 1974. Vegetation for increased        water yield in Arizona. Tech. Bull. 215. Tucson, AZ: University of        Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 38 p.  [4448]
  • 27.  Franzreb, Kathleen E. 1977. Bird population changes after timber        harvesting of a mixed conifer forest in Arizona. Res. Pap. RM-184. Fort        Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p.  [19331]
  • 30.  Gottfried, Gerald J. 1978. Five-year growth and development in a virgin        Arizona mixed conifer stand. Res. Pap. RM-203. Fort Collins, CO: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and        Range Experiment Station. 22 p.  [15661]
  • 32.  Gottfried, Gerald J. 1992. Growth and development in an old-growth        Arizona mixed conifer stand following initial harvesting. Forest Ecology        and Management. 54: 1-26.  [20231]
  • 37.  Hermann, Richard K.; Lavender, Denis P. 1990. Pseudotsuga menziesii        (Mirb.) Franco  Douglas-fir. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H.,        technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers.        Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service: 527-540.  [13413]
  • 40.  Jones, John R. 1971. Mixed conifer seedling growth in eastern Arizona.        Res. Note RM-77. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 19        p.  [16497]
  • 48.  Larson, Frederic R.; Wolters, Gale L. 1983. Overstory-understory        relationships: mixed conifer forests. In: Bartlett, E. T.; Betters,        David R., eds. Overstory-understory relationships in Western forests.        Western Regional Res. Publ. No. 1. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State        University Experiment Station: 21-25.  [3313]
  • 51.  Moir, William H.; Ludwig, John A. 1979. A classification of spruce-fir        and mixed conifer habitat types of Arizona and New Mexico. Res. Pap.        RM-207. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 47 p.        [1677]
  • 52.  Niering, William A.; Lowe, Charles H. 1984. Vegetation of the Santa        Catalina Mountains: community types and dynamics. Vegetatio. 58: 3-28.        [12037]
  • 53.  Perry, Jesse P., Jr. 1991. The pines of Mexico and Central America.        Portland, OR: Timber Press. 231 p.  [20328]
  • 57.  Romme, William H.; Jamieson, David W.; Redders, Jeffery S.; [and        others]
  • 71.  Thill, Ronald E.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Patton, David R. 1983. Deer and        elk forage production in Arizona mixed conifer forests. Res. Pap.        RM-248. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p.        [14381]
  • 76.  Whittaker, R. H.; Niering, W. A. 1965. Vegetation of the Santa Catalina        Mountains, Arizona: a gradient analysis of the south slope. Ecology. 46:        429-452.  [9637]
  • 8.  Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a        desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A.        Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569.  [14986]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: series

Southwestern white pine normally occurs in low densities in southwestern
pine, mixed-conifer, and spruce-fir forests [67].  It occurs as an
associate in habitat type series of the major conifers in these forests
[3,4,5,17,26,52].  Southwestern white pine infrequently forms small pure
stands; it is most likely to be dominant in high-elevation, cool
habitats [49,51,53].

Southwestern white pine may be present as a minor component in riparian
community types in south-central Arizona and in the montane riparian
woodland zone of southwestern Colorado [9,70].

Southwestern white pine is listed as an indicator species in the
following publications:

(1)  Classification of the forest vegetation on the National Forests of
       Arizona and New Mexico [5]
(2)  A classification of forest habitat types of northern New Mexico and
       southern Colorado [18]
(3)  Forest habitat types in the Apache, Gila, and part of the Cibola
       National Forests, Arizona and New Mexico [26]
(4)  Forest and woodland habitat types (plant associations) of northern
       New Mexico and northern Arizona [49]
(5)  A classification of spruce-fir and mixed conifer habitat types of
       Arizona and New Mexico [51].
  • 17.  DeVelice, Robert L.; Ludwig, John A. 1983. Forest habitat types south of        the Mogollon Rim, Arizona and New Mexico. Final Report. Cooperative        Agreement No. 28-K2-240 between U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station and New        Mexico State University. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University. 47        p.  [780]
  • 18.  DeVelice, Robert L.; Ludwig, John A.; Moir, William H.; Ronco, Frank,        Jr. 1986. A classification of forest habitat types of northern New        Mexico and southern Colorado. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-131. Fort Collins, CO:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest        and Range Experiment Station. 59 p.  [781]
  • 26.  Fitzhugh, E. Lee; Moir, William H.; Ludwig, John A.; Ronco, Frank, Jr.        1987. Forest habitat types in the Apache, Gila, and part of the Cibola        National Forests, Arizona and New Mexico. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-145. Fort        Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 116 p.  [4206]
  • 3.  Alexander, Billy G., Jr.; Ronco, Frank, Jr.; Fitzhugh, E. Lee; Ludwig,        John A. 1984. A classification of forest habitat types of the Lincoln        National Forest, New Mexico. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-104. Fort Collins, CO:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest        and Range Experiment Station. 29 p.  [300]
  • 4.  Alexander, Billy G., Jr.; Ronco, Frank, Jr.; White, Alan S.; Ludwig,        John A. 1984. Douglas-fir habitat types of northern Arizona. Gen. Tech.        Rep. RM-108. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p.        [301]
  • 49.  Larson, Milo; Moir, W. H. 1987. Forest and woodland habitat types (plant        associations) of northern New Mexico and northern Arizona. 2d ed.        Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Southwestern Region. 90 p.  [8947]
  • 5.  Alexander, Robert R.; Ronco, Frank, Jr. 1987. Classification of the        forest vegetation on the National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico.        Res. Note RM-469. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 10        p.  [3515]
  • 51.  Moir, William H.; Ludwig, John A. 1979. A classification of spruce-fir        and mixed conifer habitat types of Arizona and New Mexico. Res. Pap.        RM-207. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 47 p.        [1677]
  • 52.  Niering, William A.; Lowe, Charles H. 1984. Vegetation of the Santa        Catalina Mountains: community types and dynamics. Vegetatio. 58: 3-28.        [12037]
  • 53.  Perry, Jesse P., Jr. 1991. The pines of Mexico and Central America.        Portland, OR: Timber Press. 231 p.  [20328]
  • 67.  Stromberg, Julie C.; Patten, Duncan T. 1991. Dynamics of the spruce-fir        forests on the Pinaleno Mountains, Graham Co., Arizona. Southwestern        Naturalist. 36(1): 37-48.  [14878]
  • 70.  Szaro, Robert C.; King, Rudy M. 1990. Sampling intensity and species        richness: effects on delineating Southwestern riparian plant        communities. Forest Ecology and Management. 33/34: 335-349.  [13783]
  • 9.  Baker, William L. 1988. Size-class structure of contiguous riparian        woodlands along a Rocky Mountain river. Physical Geography. 9(1): 1-14.        [9269]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

   FRES21  Ponderosa pine
   FRES23  Fir - spruce

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

   206  Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir
   210  Interior Douglas-fir
   211  White fir
   216  Blue spruce
   217  Aspen
   219  Limber pine
   237  Interior ponderosa pine

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

   K018  Pine - Douglas-fir forest
   K019  Arizona pine forest
   K020  Spruce - fir - Douglas-fir forest
   K021  Southwestern spruce - fir forest

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat & Distribution

Arid to moist summit elevations, montane forests; 1900--3000m; Ariz., N.Mex., Tex.; n Mexico.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: fuel, natural, prescribed fire, series

Prediction of natural fuel loadings in southwestern mixed-conifer
forests is difficult; much variation exists within and between stands
[58].  Sackett [59] reported average square diameter and specific
gravity for southwestern white pine and other conifers in different size
classes, making the planar intersect method of fuel evaluation
applicable to southwestern forests.

Regeneration by prescribed fire of mixed-conifer series for wildlife has
been discussed in detail [63].
  • 58.  Sackett, Stephen S. 1979. Natural fuel loadings in ponderosa pine and        mixed conifer forests of the  Southwest. Res. Pap. RM-213. Fort Collins,        CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain        Forest and Range Experiment Station. 10 p.  [5665]
  • 59.  Sackett, Stephen S. 1980. Woody fuel particle size and specific gravity        of southwestern tree species. Res. Note RM-389. Fort Collins, CO: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and        Range Experiment Station. 4 p.  [13258]
  • 63.  Severson, Kieth E.; Rinne, John N. 1990. Increasing habitat diversity in        Southwestern forests and woodlands via prescribed fire. In: Krammes, J.        S., technical coordinator. Effects of fire management of Southwestern        natural resources: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 November 15-17;        Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-191. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 94-104.  [11277]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Plant Response to Fire

Southwestern  white pine may establish after fire through bird-dispersed
seeds.

While southwestern white pine is known to be an important seral tree
following fire, such as in white fir-Douglas-fir (Abies concolor-
Pseudotsuga menziesii)/Gambel oak habitat types, no information was
found in the literature about southwestern white pine rates of recovery
after fire [51].
  • 51.  Moir, William H.; Ludwig, John A. 1979. A classification of spruce-fir        and mixed conifer habitat types of Arizona and New Mexico. Res. Pap.        RM-207. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 47 p.        [1677]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Immediate Effect of Fire

Fire damaged stems of young (less than 15 years) southwestern white pine
usually die; older trees (more than 50 years) are susceptible to
scarring [2].

No information was found in the literature about the fire susceptibility
of southwestern white pine seeds stored in caches.  It is possible that
soil may sufficiently insulate cached seeds from fire damage.
  • 2.  Ahlstrand, Gary M. 1980. Fire history of a mixed conifer forest in        Guadalupe Mountains National Park. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich,        John H., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the fire history        workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort        Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 4-7.  [16035]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: secondary colonizer, tree

   Tree without adventitious-bud root crown
   Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Ecology

More info for the term: frequency

Southwestern white pine is not fire adapted; it does not have
fire-induced sprouting, seed germination, or biomass increases [12].
Southwestern white pine is fire sensitive in young age classes.  Older
trees with somewhat thicker bark are relatively more fire resistant
[20].  The thin bark and horizontal or drooping branches increase its
susceptibility to fire.

Lightning-ignited fires occur in the southwestern forests during spring
or early summer before the rains begin [2].  Arizona and New Mexico
mixed-conifer forests have the highest frequency of lightning fires in
the United States [77].

Fire-scarred cross sections of living and dead southwestern white pine
and other conifers were examined to determine the role of fire in
southwestern forests.  Over time spans of 288 and 426 years, the average
intervals between fires in western Texas and east-central Arizona were
4.7 to 9 or 22 years [2,8,20].  These chronologies have been used with
climatic data to develop fire hazard forecasting models [68].
  • 12.  Wright, T. W.; Will, G. M. 1958. The nutrient content of Scots and        Corsican pines growing on sand dunes. Forestry. 31: 13-25.  [18334]
  • 2.  Ahlstrand, Gary M. 1980. Fire history of a mixed conifer forest in        Guadalupe Mountains National Park. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich,        John H., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the fire history        workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort        Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 4-7.  [16035]
  • 20.  Dieterich, John H. 1983. Fire history of southwestern mixed conifer: a        case study. Forest Ecology. 6: 13-31.  [5242]
  • 68.  Swetnam, Thomas W.; Betancourt, Julio L. 1990. Fire--southern        oscillation relations in the southwestern United States. Science. 249:        1017-1020.  [12106]
  • 77.  Wright, Henry A. 1990. Role of fire in the management of southwestern        ecosystems. In: Krammes, J. S., technical coordinator. Effects of fire        management of Southwestern natural resources: Proceedings of the        symposium; 1988 November 15-17; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-191. Fort        Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 1-5.  [11267]
  • 8.  Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a        desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A.        Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569.  [14986]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: climax, codominant, tree

Southwestern white pine is frequently a persistent, long-lived seral or
climax species in mixed-conifer forests [4,26,51].  It has been
classified as an early successional major tree [60].  Southwestern white
pine infrequently is a climax dominant or codominant in open stands
[4,51,69].

Southwestern white pine is relatively shade intolerant compared to other
associated conifers in the southwestern mixed-conifer forests.  It is
relatively resistant to damage from full sunlight [41].  In 8 out of 12
sites in New Mexico, southwestern white pine was in the overstory, but
in only 2 of those 12 sites was it in the understory.  Ahlstrand [1]
suggested that canopy closure prevented southwestern white pine
replacement at these sites.
  • 1.  Ahlstrand, Gary M. 1979. Preliminary report on the ecology of fire        study, Guadalupe Mountains and Carlsbad Caverns National Parks. In:        Genoways, Hugh H.; Baker, Robert J., eds. Biological investigations in        the Guadalupe Mountains National Park: Proceedings of a symposium; 1975        April 4-5; Lubbock, TX. Proceedings and Transactions Series No. 4.        Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service:        31-44.  [16015]
  • 26.  Fitzhugh, E. Lee; Moir, William H.; Ludwig, John A.; Ronco, Frank, Jr.        1987. Forest habitat types in the Apache, Gila, and part of the Cibola        National Forests, Arizona and New Mexico. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-145. Fort        Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 116 p.  [4206]
  • 4.  Alexander, Billy G., Jr.; Ronco, Frank, Jr.; White, Alan S.; Ludwig,        John A. 1984. Douglas-fir habitat types of northern Arizona. Gen. Tech.        Rep. RM-108. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p.        [301]
  • 41.  Jones, John R. 1974. Silviculture of southwestern mixed conifers and        aspen: The status of our knowledge. Res. Pap. RM-122. Fort Collins, CO:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest        and Range Experiment Station. 44 p.  [16081]
  • 51.  Moir, William H.; Ludwig, John A. 1979. A classification of spruce-fir        and mixed conifer habitat types of Arizona and New Mexico. Res. Pap.        RM-207. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 47 p.        [1677]
  • 60.  Schmidt, Wyman C.; Larson, Milo. 1989. Silviculture of western inland        conifers. In: Burns, Russell M., compiler. The scientific basis for        silvicultural and management decisions in the National Forest System.        Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-55. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service: 40-58.  [10245]
  • 69.  Swetnam, Thomas W.; Brown, Peter M. 1992. Oldest known conifers in the        southwestern United States: temporal and spatial patterns of maximum        age. In: Kaufmann, Merrill R.; Moir, W. H.; Bassett, Richard L.,        technical coordinators. Old-growth forests in the southwest and Rocky        Mountain regions: Proceedings of a workshop; 1992 March 9-13; Portal,        AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-213. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 24-38.  [19039]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: resistance, tree

Southwestern white pine reproduces sexually.  It begins to produce cones
when pole sized or about 15 years [39,44].  The interval between seed
crops for any one tree is 3 to 4 years [44].  Seed traps were placed in
clearcut mixed-conifer forest in Arizona to monitor regeneration over 3
years.  No southwestern white pine seeds were found in the traps [39].

Southwestern white pine seeds require 2 weeks to 4 months stratification
before germinating [43,44,78].  Germinability can vary between 52 and 95
percent [43,44].  Seed collection and germination methods are discussed
in detail [36,44].

Seeds of the southwestern white pine ripen synchronously throughout a
forest and overwhelm the harvesting efforts of predators [11,34].  Red
squirrels clip entire cones and cache them [34].  The wingless seeds are
dispersed by birds, primarily by the Steller's jay and Clark's
nutcracker
[11,47,72].  Animal caches result in clustered stands [72].

Southwestern white pine seedlings root deeply (to about 8 inches [20.3
cm]) the first year, which increases their survival under drought
conditions [40,43].  All of the southwestern white pine seedlings died
in a greenhouse experiment that assessed the drought resistance of
conifers along an elevational gradient.  Southwestern white pine died
after significantly (p less than 0.05) fewer days than other conifer species from
lower elevations [10].

With the initial deep root growth, southwestern white pine seedlings had
the slowest top growth rate of four conifer species measured.  At about
6 years of age, the average height of southwestern white pine seedlings
was 13.3 inches (33.8 cm) [40].  In another study, 2-year-old seedlings
were between 4 and 8 inches (10.2-20.3 cm) tall [36].
  • 10.  Barton, Andrew M. 1992. Factors controlling lower elevational limits of        plants: responses of pines to drought in the Chiricahua Mountains,        Arizona. In: Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane        A.; [and others]
  • 11.  Benkman, Craig W.; Balda, Russell P.; Smith, Christopher C. 1984.        Adaptations for seed dispersal and the compromises due to seed predation        in limber pine. Ecology. 65(2): 632-642.  [429]
  • 34.  Halvorson, Curtis H. 1986. Influence of vertebrates on conifer seed        production. In: Shearer, Raymond C., compiler. Proceedings--conifer tree        seed in the Inland Mountain West symposium; 1985 August 5-6; Missoula,        MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-203. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 201-222.  [13115]
  • 36.  Heit, C. E. 1973. Propagation from seed. Part 24. Testing and growing        limber and Mexican border pines. American Nurseryman. 137: 8-9; 64-74.        [20643]
  • 39.  Jones, John R. 1967. Regeneration of mixed conifer clearcuttings on the        Apache National Forest, Arizona. Res. Note RM-79. Fort Collins, CO: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and        Range Experiment Station. 8 p.  [16082]
  • 40.  Jones, John R. 1971. Mixed conifer seedling growth in eastern Arizona.        Res. Note RM-77. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 19        p.  [16497]
  • 43.  Jones, John R. 1975. Regeneration on an aspen clearcut in Arizona. Res.        Note RM-285. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 8 p.        [16484]
  • 44.  Krugman, Stanley L.; Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Pinaceae--pine family.        In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in        the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 598-637.  [1380]
  • 47.  Lanner, Ronald M. 1990. Morphological differences between wind-dispersed        and bird-dispersed pines of subgenus Strobus. In: Schmidt, Wyman C.;        McDonald, Kathy J., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on whitebark pine        ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource; 1989        March 29-31; Bozeman, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-270. Ogden, UT: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research        Station: 371-372.  [11707]
  • 72.  Tomback, Diana F.; Linhart, Yan B. 1990. The evolution of bird-dispersed        pines. Evolutionary Ecology. 4: 185-219.  [17534]
  • 78.  Wright, J. W.; Kung, F. H.; Read, R. A.; [and others]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Form

More info for the term: tree

Tree

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Southwestern white pine flowers in June.  Cones mature in September, and
seeds are dispersed from September to October [44].  Southwestern white
pine seeds germinate either in the spring or in the summer after the
rains begin [40].
  • 40.  Jones, John R. 1971. Mixed conifer seedling growth in eastern Arizona.        Res. Note RM-77. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 19        p.  [16497]
  • 44.  Krugman, Stanley L.; Jenkinson, James L. 1974. Pinaceae--pine family.        In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in        the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 598-637.  [1380]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pinus strobiformis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus strobiformis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Perez de la Rosa, J.

Contributor/s

Justification

The range of this species is very extensive and it is common to abundant in pine forests in the Sierra Madre Occidental and elsewhere. There may be some decline due to exploitation of timber trees in some localities, but overall the population can be considered stable and is therefore assessed as Least Concern.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
The population is thought to be stable despite some localized over-exploitation.

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Potential threats are logging if carried out unsustainably, and perhaps susceptibility to white pine blister rust, although at present there is no evidence of this.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in several protected areas on either side of the Mexico – USA border.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management considerations

More info for the terms: basal area, density, resistance, seed tree, tree

Silviculture:  Various silviculture systems have been used in the
mixed-conifer forests where southwestern white pine occurs. 

The average annual growth of southwestern white pine was less than 0.1
inch (0.25 cm) per year in a virgin mixed-conifer stand in Arizona.  The
initial volume of southwestern white pine was 1,097 board feet per acre,
and after 5 years, the volume was 1,163 board feet per acre [30].

Small patch clearcutting has been used for regeneration of southwestern
white pine and associated conifers in old-growth mixed-conifer stands
[24,32].  Regeneration density of southwestern white pine per acre was
low after 10 years [24].

Gray [33] classified southwestern white pine as a suitable seed tree.
Southwestern white pine regeneration by seed trees was not successful,
however, in communities at 9,500 to 10,000 feet (2,896-3,048 m);
revegetation was very slow [49].

Spot seeding yielded a low number of surviving southwestern white pine
seedlings in east-central Arizona [39,43].  Rodents were controlled, but
frost heaving and unsuitable tree ecotypes could have factored into the
seedling mortality [39].  Heavy broadcast seeding of southwestern white
pine should be used instead of spot seeding [43].

Planting southwestern white pine seedlings at different elevations and
densities are discussed in detail [41].

Wildlife:  Patch clearcuts were evaluated for forage production and
utilization by ungulates.  Understory production significantly (p less than 0.05)
increased on clearcut areas; however, utilization by ungulates did not
differ significantly (p>0.05) [23].  Equations are available for
predicting forage production in mixed-conifer forests [22,48].  Patch
clearcuts removed about 30 percent of the total basal area in an uneven-
aged virgin Arizona mixed-conifer forest, which did not adversely affect
the nesting or feeding of birds [62].  This method reduced southwestern
white pine basal area by 47 percent on northern aspects and by 13
percent on southern aspects.

Some of the mixed-conifer forests that southwestern white pine is in
provide habitat for sensitive and threatened species such as Mexican
spotted owl, northern goshawk, and Sacramento Mountain salamander
[28,56,61].

Damaging agents:  Southwestern white pine is the principal host of
Apache dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium apachecum).  Infected trees have
reduced growth, increased susceptibity to other infections, insects,
and mortality [35,75].  Southwestern white pine is infected by red ring
rot and by root and butt rots [75].  Southwestern white pine seedlings
received an average overall ranking of 8.8 in trials for resistance to
white pine blister rust; a score of 11 was the lowest resistance [38].

Other factors:  Various methods of weed suppression made no significant
(p=0.10) difference in growth of southwestern white pine produced in
containers [7].

Southwestern white pine has good potential for Christmas tree production
in the eastern United States [36,78].

Southwestern white pine is planted along streets in urban areas.  Its
foliage has an intermediate susceptibility to salt spray; medium foliar
injury with moderate growth reduction occurred [73].
  • 22.  Ffolliott, Peter F. 1983. Overstory-understory relationships:        Southwestern ponderosa pine forests. In: Bartlett, E. T.; Betters, David        R., eds. Overstory-understory relationships in western forests. Western        Regional Research Publication No. 1. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State        University Experiment Station: 13-18.  [3311]
  • 23.  Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J. 1989. Production and        utilization of herbaceous plants in small clearcuts in an Arizona mixed        conifer forest. Res. Note RM-494. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station. 5 p.  [10543]
  • 24.  Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J. 1991. Mixed conifer and aspen        regeneration in small clearcuts within a partially harvested Arizona        mixed conifer forest. Res. Pap. RM-294. Fort Collins, CO: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and        Range Experiment Station. 9 p.  [14625]
  • 28.  Ganey, Joseph L.; Duncan, Russell B.; Block, William M. 1992. Use of oak        and associated woodlands by Mexican spotted owls in Arizona. In:        Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Bennett, Duane A.; [and        others]
  • 30.  Gottfried, Gerald J. 1978. Five-year growth and development in a virgin        Arizona mixed conifer stand. Res. Pap. RM-203. Fort Collins, CO: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and        Range Experiment Station. 22 p.  [15661]
  • 32.  Gottfried, Gerald J. 1992. Growth and development in an old-growth        Arizona mixed conifer stand following initial harvesting. Forest Ecology        and Management. 54: 1-26.  [20231]
  • 33.  Gray, Susan E. 1991. Seed-tree regeneration method: Silvicultural        considerations. In: Genetics/silviculture workshop proceedings; 1990        August 27-31; Wenatchee, WA. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Timber Management Staff: 183-219.  [16028]
  • 35.  Hawksworth, Frank G. 1978. Biological factors of dwarf mistletoe in        relation to control. In: Scharpf, Robert F.; Parmeter, John R., Jr.,        technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symposium on dwarf mistletoe        control through forest management; 1978 April 11-13; Berkeley, CA. Gen.        Tech. Rep. PSW-31. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 5-15.        [14249]
  • 36.  Heit, C. E. 1973. Propagation from seed. Part 24. Testing and growing        limber and Mexican border pines. American Nurseryman. 137: 8-9; 64-74.        [20643]
  • 38.  Hoff, R.; Bingham, R. T.; McDonald, G. I. 1980. Relative blister rust        resistance of white pines. European Journal of Forest Pathology. 10(5):        307-316.  [1177]
  • 39.  Jones, John R. 1967. Regeneration of mixed conifer clearcuttings on the        Apache National Forest, Arizona. Res. Note RM-79. Fort Collins, CO: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and        Range Experiment Station. 8 p.  [16082]
  • 41.  Jones, John R. 1974. Silviculture of southwestern mixed conifers and        aspen: The status of our knowledge. Res. Pap. RM-122. Fort Collins, CO:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest        and Range Experiment Station. 44 p.  [16081]
  • 43.  Jones, John R. 1975. Regeneration on an aspen clearcut in Arizona. Res.        Note RM-285. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 8 p.        [16484]
  • 48.  Larson, Frederic R.; Wolters, Gale L. 1983. Overstory-understory        relationships: mixed conifer forests. In: Bartlett, E. T.; Betters,        David R., eds. Overstory-understory relationships in Western forests.        Western Regional Res. Publ. No. 1. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State        University Experiment Station: 21-25.  [3313]
  • 49.  Larson, Milo; Moir, W. H. 1987. Forest and woodland habitat types (plant        associations) of northern New Mexico and northern Arizona. 2d ed.        Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Southwestern Region. 90 p.  [8947]
  • 56.  Reynolds, Richard T.; Graham, Russell T.; Reiser, M. Hildegard; [and        others]
  • 61.  Scott, Norman J., Jr.; Ramotnik, Cynthia A. 1992. Does the Sacramento        Mountain salamander require old-growth forests?. In: Kaufmann, Merrill        R.; Moir, W. H.; Bassett, Richard L., technical coordinators. Old-growth        forests in the southwest and Rocky Mountain regions: Proceedings of a        workshop; 1992 March 9-13; Portal, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-213. Fort        Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 170-178.  [19052]
  • 62.  Scott, Virgil E.; Gottfried, Gerald J. 1983. Bird response to timber        harvest in a mixed conifer forest in Arizona. Res. Pap. RM-245. Fort        Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 8 p.  [19333]
  • 7.  Appleton, Bonnie L.; Derr, Jeffrey F. 1990. Use of geotextile disks for        container weed control. HortScience. 25(6): 666-668.  [20642]
  • 73.  Townsend, A. M. 1989. The search for salt tolerant trees. Arboricultural        Journal. 13(1): 67-73.  [13061]
  • 75.  Walters, James W. 1978. A guide to forest diseases of southwestern        conifers. R3 78-9. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service, Southwest Region, State and Private Forestry, Forest        Insect and Disease Management. 36 p.  [16779]
  • 78.  Wright, J. W.; Kung, F. H.; Read, R. A.; [and others]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: natural

Seeds of southwestern white pine are eaten by small mammals and birds.
It is not generally browsed by game animals or livestock [41].
Southwestern white pine was seldom used by birds in either logged or
unlogged forest areas [27].

Southwestern white pine is often found in mixed-conifer forests that are
valuable summer habitat for big and small game animals, rodents, and
game and nongame birds [19,25].  Since natural regeneration of clearcut
mixed-conifer forests on south-facing slopes requires 50 to 100 years,
these clearcut areas can be a valuable long-term forage resource for
deer and elk [71].
  • 19.  Diem, Kenneth L.; Zeveloff, Samuel I. 1980. Ponderosa pine bird        communities. In: DeGraaf, Richard M., technical coordinator. Management        of western forests and grasslands for nongame birds: Workshop        proceedings; 1980 February 11-14; Salt Lake City, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep.        INT-86. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 170-197.  [17904]
  • 25.  Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thorud, David B. 1974. Vegetation for increased        water yield in Arizona. Tech. Bull. 215. Tucson, AZ: University of        Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 38 p.  [4448]
  • 27.  Franzreb, Kathleen E. 1977. Bird population changes after timber        harvesting of a mixed conifer forest in Arizona. Res. Pap. RM-184. Fort        Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky        Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p.  [19331]
  • 41.  Jones, John R. 1974. Silviculture of southwestern mixed conifers and        aspen: The status of our knowledge. Res. Pap. RM-122. Fort Collins, CO:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest        and Range Experiment Station. 44 p.  [16081]
  • 71.  Thill, Ronald E.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Patton, David R. 1983. Deer and        elk forage production in Arizona mixed conifer forests. Res. Pap.        RM-248. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p.        [14381]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wood Products Value

Southwestern white pine wood is soft, not resinous, and white with a
slightly darker heartwood.  It is used locally for cabinetry, doors, and
window frames [53].  Crooked stems and coarse branches make it
undesirable for lumber [41].
  • 41.  Jones, John R. 1974. Silviculture of southwestern mixed conifers and        aspen: The status of our knowledge. Res. Pap. RM-122. Fort Collins, CO:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest        and Range Experiment Station. 44 p.  [16081]
  • 53.  Perry, Jesse P., Jr. 1991. The pines of Mexico and Central America.        Portland, OR: Timber Press. 231 p.  [20328]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Palatability

Southwestern white pine seeds are palatable to small mammals and birds
[11,34].
  • 11.  Benkman, Craig W.; Balda, Russell P.; Smith, Christopher C. 1984.        Adaptations for seed dispersal and the compromises due to seed predation        in limber pine. Ecology. 65(2): 632-642.  [429]
  • 34.  Halvorson, Curtis H. 1986. Influence of vertebrates on conifer seed        production. In: Shearer, Raymond C., compiler. Proceedings--conifer tree        seed in the Inland Mountain West symposium; 1985 August 5-6; Missoula,        MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-203. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 201-222.  [13115]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Other uses and values

Southwestern white pine is grown as an ornamental [73,78].
  • 73.  Townsend, A. M. 1989. The search for salt tolerant trees. Arboricultural        Journal. 13(1): 67-73.  [13061]
  • 78.  Wright, J. W.; Kung, F. H.; Read, R. A.; [and others]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Chihuahua white pine

The Chihuahua white pine, Pinus strobiformis, family Pinaceae, is a species of pine tree that occurs in the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains of Northern Mexico, from a short distance south of the US–Mexico border south through Chihuahua and Durango to Jalisco.

It is typically a high-elevation pine, often growing mixed with several other pine species. In favourable conditions, it makes a tree to 30 m, rarely 40 m tall.

Description[edit]

Chihuahua white pine, Pinus strobiformis, is a member of the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, and like all members of that group, the leaves ('needles') are in fascicles (bundles) of five, with a deciduous sheath. The needles are finely serrated, and 8–14 cm long.

The cones are very large, 16–50 cm long and 9–11 cm broad, and have scales with a very characteristic prolonged and often recurved or S-shaped apex. The seeds are large, and with a very short wing; they are dispersed mainly by birds, particularly the Mexican Jay. It is a very drought tolerant tree but greater populations grow on moist and cool places living in association with Pinus hartwegii and Pinus rudis.


Uses[edit]

The seeds were used as a food by Native Americans in the present day Southwestern United States.

The wood is used in Mexico for furniture and doors.

References[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

In the northern part of the range, Pinus strobiformis overlaps P . flexilis and reportedly hybridizes with it. On average P . strobiformis has longer, more slender leaves and thinner, more spreading-tipped apophyses than are found in P . flexilis , and stomatal bands are not evident on the abaxial surface of its leaves.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Common Names

southwestern white pine
Mexican white pine
border white pine
pino enano

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonyms

Pinus reflexa Engelm.
Pinus ayacahuite var. strobiformis Lemmon

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The currently accepted scientific name of southwestern white pine is
Pinus strobiformis Engelm. [6]. There are no recognized subspecies,
varieties, or forms. Southwestern white pine hybridizes with limber
pine (P. flexilis James) where their ranges overlap [6,17,53].
  • 17.  DeVelice, Robert L.; Ludwig, John A. 1983. Forest habitat types south of        the Mogollon Rim, Arizona and New Mexico. Final Report. Cooperative        Agreement No. 28-K2-240 between U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station and New        Mexico State University. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University. 47        p.  [780]
  • 53.  Perry, Jesse P., Jr. 1991. The pines of Mexico and Central America.        Portland, OR: Timber Press. 231 p.  [20328]
  • 6.  Andresen, John W.; Steinhoff, Raphael J. 1971. The taxonomy of Pinus        flexilis and P. strobiformis. Phytologia. 22(2): 57-70.  [332]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!