Physical Description

Type Information

Holotype for Pinus donnell-smithii Mast.
Catalog Number: US 941023
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Donnell Smith
Year Collected: 1890
Locality: Volcan de Agua., Sacatepéquez, Guatemala, Central America
Elevation (m): 3749 to 3749
  • Holotype: Masters, M. T. 1891. Bot. Gaz. 16: 199.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Pinus hartwegii is the typical high altitude pine of Mexico and Guatemala, where it often forms extensive, monotypic pine forests up to the tree line on high, isolated volcanoes or summits of mountain ranges. In Honduras it is rare, of limited extent and usually found with Abies guatemalensis, Cupressus lusitanica, Juniperus standleyi, Quercus spp., Dendropanax lempirianus, Drymis granadensis, a ground cover of Ericaceae, Lycopodiaceae, and epiphytic Bromeliaceae in a cool cloud forest type usually between 2,700-2,850 m on the highest mountain summits. Similar forests occur in Guatemala and the southern states of Mexico, but there extensive pine forests predominate, in which P. hartwegii increasingly dominates with rising altitude. Its altitudinal range in Guatemala and Mexico is similar: (2,300-)2,500-4,000(-4,300) m a.s.l. At lower elevations it is often mixed with P. montezumae, with which it is closely related, and with other pines depending on the geographical area. Soils are both from volcanic and granitic rock, of various depths, but often poor in nutrients. Climatically there are considerable differences congruent with latitude/altitude gradients, with heavy frost and snow during several months and often high winds near the tree lines of the high volcanoes in Central Mexico.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pinus hartwegii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus hartwegii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 24
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Pinus hartwegii var. rudis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus hartwegii var. rudis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Perez de la Rosa, J.

Contributor/s

Justification

This species has a very large extent of occurrence and is mostly confined to the highest altitude pine forests, where its exploitation is limited. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.

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Population

Population
May form large, monotypic forests. The population trend is stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
With global warming, the habitats of this species are becoming less cold and this is resulting in the trees becoming more stressed, weakening the species and allowing attacks of pests such as bark beetles (Dendroctonus spp.).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This widespread species is present in many protected areas, including several national parks.
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Wikipedia

Pinus hartwegii

Pinus hartwegii (syn. P. rudis, P. donnell-smithii), Hartweg's pine, is a pine native to the mountains of Mexico and Central America east to Honduras. It is named after Karl Theodor Hartweg, who discovered it in 1838.

Distribution[edit]

Pinus hartwegii is a very high altitude species, growing at altitudes of 2,500–4,300 metres (8,200–14,100 ft). It forms the alpine tree line on most of Mexico's higher mountains. It grows on both the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental (mountain ranges) (29° North latitude) from Chihuahua State and Nuevo León (26°) to the highest peaks in the mountain ranges on the El SalvadorHonduras border (15° North latitude). In the Sierra Madre Occidental this pine grows with very dry winters and a very heavy rainy season in summer, with constant frosts from October to March.

This pine does not acquire the dwarfed and contorted shape shared by many species at high altitudes. Even at the alpine tree line, this tree is not damaged by the cold and wind-blown ice present at that altitude. Consequently, Pinus hartwegii has been studied as an evolutionarily unique member on tree line ecophysiology.

P. hartwegii at treeline (4030m), Cofre de Perote, Mexico

Description[edit]

Pinus hartwegii is an evergreen tree reaching 20–30 metres (66–98 ft) in height, with a broad, rounded crown. The bark is thick, dark grey-brown, and scaly or fissured. The leaves are needle-like, dark green, five (occasionally four) per fascicle, 10-20 cm long and 1.2-1.5 mm thick, the persistent fascicle sheath 1.5-2 cm long.

The cones are ovoid, 6-13 cm long, black or very dark purple, opening when mature in spring to 5-7 cm broad. The seeds are winged, 5-6 mm long with a 1.5-2.5 cm wing. Pollination is in late spring, with the cones maturing 20–22 months after.

It is closely related to Pinus montezumae (Montezuma pine) , differing from it in the shorter leaves, black (not brown) and smaller cones; it replaces Montezuma pine at high altitudes, and often hybridises with it where they meet at middle altitudes.

References[edit]

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