Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

azooxanthellate
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Fossil species

recent & fossil

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 13 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 10 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.5 - 65.8
  Temperature range (°C): 22.344 - 27.933
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.181 - 6.523
  Salinity (PPS): 34.161 - 35.493
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.215 - 4.820
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 0.824
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.453 - 5.791

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1.5 - 65.8

Temperature range (°C): 22.344 - 27.933

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.181 - 6.523

Salinity (PPS): 34.161 - 35.493

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.215 - 4.820

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 0.824

Silicate (umol/l): 1.453 - 5.791
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Dispersal

Depth range

0-110 m
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:1
Specimens with Sequences:0
Specimens with Barcodes:0
Species:1
Species With Barcodes:0
Public Records:0
Public Species:0
Public BINs:0
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:12
Specimens with Sequences:9
Specimens with Barcodes:7
Species:6
Species With Barcodes:5
Public Records:8
Public Species:4
Public BINs:1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Queensland Museum
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© Ocean Genome Legacy

Source: Ocean Genome Resource

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Wikipedia

Tubastrea

Tubastraea, also known as sun coral or sun polyps, is a genus of coral in the phylum Cnidaria. It is a cup coral in the family Dendrophylliidae.

Description[edit]

Sun corals belong to a group of corals known as large-polyp stony corals. This means that while they produce a hard skeleton, they do not build reefs.[2] Different species have polyps in a variety of colors, including yellow, orange, and shades of black.

Feeding[edit]

Unlike most corals, Sun corals are not photosynthetic. Tubastraea do not host zooxanthellae, the symbiotic algae that provides energy to the coral via photosynthesis.[3] Instead, they are heterotrophic, and extend long tentacles at night to catch passing zooplankton.

Habitat[edit]

Tubastraea coccinea was first documented in 1943 on Caribbean reefs in Curaçao and Puerto Rico.[4] T. coccinea is an invasive species that was documented to have spread as far north as the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary in 2004.[4]

Tubastraea is often found in deep waters because they do not require sunlight for nourishment. They often colonize on artificial surfaces - such as ship wrecks - for this reason.[5]

Reproduction and Growth[edit]

Like most coral, sun coral reproduces asexually. They are hermaphrodites and produce planulae.[6] These larvae live for up to two weeks, but usually colonize within 1 meter (3.3 ft) of the parent organism.[7] They reproduce for approximately 1.5 years, growing about 3 cm² per year.[8]

In addition, Tubastraea form runners that can extend 10.4 centimeters (4.1 in) per year, until they reach unoccupied areas, then forming polyps at the end of the runner.[9]

Reproduction occurs sexually during the summer, spring, and winter seasons. After fertilization, the female corals will carry the eggs as the offspring develop within her gastrovascular cavity and are released as larvae. After being released, the larvae disperse and eventually settle on rocky seafloors "cementing" their skeletal structure to a rock. Once cemented, the coral will grow and reside there for the rest of its life.

Captivity[edit]

Tubastraea are difficult to keep in aquaria, because they require daily feedings of zooplankton. In addition, they extend their colorful tentacles only at night, further reducing their appeal.

References[edit]

  1. ^ ITIS Standard Report Page: Tubastraea
  2. ^ Hawaii Coral Reef Network. 2005. Family Dendrophyllidae: Cup Corals.
  3. ^ Blomquist, C.H., Lima, P.H., Tarrant,A.M., Atkinson,M.J. and Atkinson, S. 2006. 17ß-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17ß-HSD) in scleractinian corals and zooxanthellae, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part B 143: 397-403
  4. ^ a b Shearer, TL (2009). "Population Analysis of an Introduced Coral Species, Tubastraea coccinea, in Florida". In: Pollock NW, ed. Diving for Science 2009. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences 28th Symposium. Dauphin Island, AL. Retrieved 2013-06-07. 
  5. ^ Fenner, D. and Banks, K. 2004. Orange Cup Coral Tubastraea coccinea invades Florida and the Flower Garden Banks, Northwestern Gulf of Mexico, Coral Reefs 23: 505-507.
  6. ^ Ayre, D.J. and Resing, J.M. 1986. Sexual and asexual production of planulae in reef corals, Marine Biology 90: 187-190.
  7. ^ Creed, J.C., Paula, A.F. De, 2007. Substratum preference during recruitment of two invasive alien corals onto shallow-subtidal tropical rocky shores. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 330: 101-111.
  8. ^ Vermeij, M.J.A. 2006. Early life-history dynamics of Caribbean coral species on artificial substratum: the importance of competition, growth and variation in life-history strategy, Coral Reefs 25: 59-71.
  9. ^ Vermeij, M.J.A. 2005. A novel growth strategy allows Tubastraea coccinea to escape small-scale adverse conditions and start over again, Coral Reefs 24: 442.
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