Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 10 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 700 - 1687
  Temperature range (°C): 3.004 - 5.753
  Nitrate (umol/L): 28.311 - 33.100
  Salinity (PPS): 34.451 - 34.596
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.007 - 4.568
  Phosphate (umol/l): 2.032 - 2.724
  Silicate (umol/l): 30.402 - 93.433

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 700 - 1687

Temperature range (°C): 3.004 - 5.753

Nitrate (umol/L): 28.311 - 33.100

Salinity (PPS): 34.451 - 34.596

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.007 - 4.568

Phosphate (umol/l): 2.032 - 2.724

Silicate (umol/l): 30.402 - 93.433
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Silica structure self-assembles: sponge
 

Cell clusters associated with the surface of the giant basal growing spicule of the hexactinellid sponge release silica for controlled circumferential growth.

     
  "The giant basal spicule of the hexactinellid sponge Monorhaphis chuni represents the longest natural siliceous structure on Earth [3 m long]. This spicule is composed of concentrically arranged lamellae that are approximately 10 μm thick...It is shown that the formation of an outermost lamella begins with the association of cell clusters with the surface of the thickening and/or growing spicule. The cells release silica for controlled formation of a lamella. The pericellular (silica) material fuses to a delimited and textured layer of silica with depressions approximately 20–30 μm in diameter. The newly formed layer initially displays 40 μm wide, well-structured banded ribbons and only attains its plain surface in a final step...the depressions are the nests for the silica-forming cells and that silica formation starts with a direct association of silica-forming cells with the outer surface of the spicule, where they remain and initiate the development of the next lamellae." (Wang et al. 2011:2047)

"Among the metazoans, the siliceous sponges (Porifera:Demospongiae and Hexactinellida) are the only taxa that build their skeleton (spiculae) of amorphous silica (Morse, 1999; Uriz, 2006; Müller et al., 2007d; Ehrlich et al., 2010b). Their silicification deposition–polycondensation pathway is distinguished from others by their ability to take up and accumulate silicic acid from a very silicon-poor aqueous environment (5 μmoll–1)". (Wang et al. 2011:2047)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Wang X; Schröder HC; Müller WEG. 2009. Giant siliceous spicules from the deep‐sea glass sponge Monorhaphis chuni. International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology. 273: 69-115.
  • Wang X; Wiens M; Schröder HC; Jochum KP; Schloßmacher U; Götz H; Duschner H; Müller WEG. 2011. Circumferential spicule growth by pericellular silica deposition in the hexactinellid sponge Monorhaphis chuni. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 214: 2047-2056.
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Wikipedia

Monorhaphididae

Monorhaphididae is a monotypic family of siliceous deep sea Hexactinellid sponges. The single taxon is the type species Monorhaphis chuni, a sponge known for creating a single giant basal spicule (GBS) to anchor the sponge in the sediments. The species was described by Franz Eilhard Schulze in 1904 from specimens collected by the German Deep Sea Expedition in 1898-1899.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Monorhaphis chuni Schulze, 1904". Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  2. ^ Xiaohong, Wang; Schröder; Müller, E.G. (2009). "Giant Siliceous Spicules from the Deep-sea Glass Sponge Monorhaphis chuni". In Jeon, Kwang W. International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol. 273. London: Academic. pp. 69–115. ISBN 0-12-374804-6. 


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