The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Holder, Charles Frederick. 1892. Along the Florida Reef. New York City, NY : D. Appleton and Company; Page 177
  • Hoover, M. (2008). Portuguese Man -of-war (Physalia physalis). Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda. 2010,
  • Lamarck J.-B. (M. de), 1801. Système des animaux sans vertèbres. published by the author, and Deterville, Paris : pp. VIII + 432 + 8 pl.
  • Mayer, Alfred Goldsborough. 1906. Sea-Shore Life : the Invertebrates of the New York Coast and the Adjacent Coast Region. New York City, NY : A. S. Barnes & Company; Fig.8
  • Moore, Raymond C. 1956. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part F: Coelenterata. xx + F1-F498
  • Reference: NCERT book standard 11(chapter 4)(India)
  • Schuchert, P.; Mapstone, G. (2014). Physalia Lamarck, 1801. In: Schuchert, P. (2014) World Hydrozoa database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • [Anonymous] (2010). Portuguese Man o' War. Wikipedia. 2010,
  • [Anonymous] (2010). Portuguese Man-of-war Physalia physalis. National Geographic. 2010,


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