Overview

Brief Summary

 Physalia is commonly known as portugese man of war.It belongs to phylum Coelentrata.

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 25 specimens in 3 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 15 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 4976
  Temperature range (°C): -1.043 - 27.475
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.355 - 39.115
  Salinity (PPS): 34.202 - 35.236
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.987 - 6.713
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.214 - 2.810
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.920 - 153.933

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 4976

Temperature range (°C): -1.043 - 27.475

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.355 - 39.115

Salinity (PPS): 34.202 - 35.236

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.987 - 6.713

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.214 - 2.810

Silicate (umol/l): 2.920 - 153.933
 
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Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

Colonial Organism

A highly derived Genus within the Order Siphonophora, Physalia are nevertheless colonial organisms, as are all Siphonophores. The pneumatophore (float-like balloon) grows from the founding zooid (individual). This founding zooid also becomes the stolon (connective canal) from which subsequent zooids bud off in modified asexual reproduction. Unlike some forms of asexual reproduction, these zooids remain attached to the colony via the stolon. In times of distress they may break off from the colony as a defense mechanism known as autotomy.

Zooids other than the founder are highly polymorphic (morphologically and behaviorally specialized), and function much like human organs (stomach, gonads, skin, etc). Distinct zooids have evolved to digest, produce gametes, capture prey, and defend the colony. In other Siphonophores there may be over six distinct polymorphic zooids within a single colony. All zooids operate in both independent and coordinated behavior despite lacking a central nervous system. In fact Siphonophores have only been shown to possess a diffuse nerve net. Thus, Physalia are a collection of individuals, a colony.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:152
Specimens with Sequences:125
Specimens with Barcodes:61
Species:3
Species With Barcodes:2
Public Records:51
Public Species:1
Public BINs:5
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Physalia

Physalia is a genus of the order Siphonophora, colonies of four specialized polyps and medusoids that drift on the surface of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. A gas-filled bladder resembling a blue bottle provides buoyancy, and long tentacles of venomous cnidocytes provide a means of capturing prey. A sail on the float, which may be left or right-handed, propels Physalia about the sea, often in groups. Individuals sometimes become stranded on beaches, where their toxic nematocysts can remain potent for weeks or months in moist conditions.

The species Physalia utriculus is given the common name Pacific man o' war to distinguish it from the more widely distributed and larger Physalia physalis, the Portuguese man o' war. The species are told apart by the size of the float (six inches compared to twelve) and by having a single versus several long fishing tentacles. No fatalities from envenomation are recorded for P. utriculus, in contrast to the larger species.[2]

The genus was first described by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in 1801.[1]

Diversity[edit]

The family Physaliidae is monotypic, consisting of only one genus, Physalia. The genus contains only two species.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Physalia Lamarck, 1801". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  2. ^ "Bluebottles and Pacific man-o-war". Stinging jellyfish in tropical Australia. CRC Reef Research Centre. November 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
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