Overview

Brief Summary

Description

 Life habit: lichenized; Thallus: immersed or rarely superficial and then thin, indistinct, dark grayish green, granular; Apothecia: usually with a faint white pruina at least at edge (upper part) of exciple and below the capitulum, 0.5-1 mm tall, 4-9 times as high as the width of the stalk; stalk: shiny black, 0.11-0.17 mm wide, consisting of blackish brown to dark aeruginose, irregularly interwoven and strongly sclerotized hyphae, becoming pale towards surface; outermost layer: paler and with a +distinct, gelatinous, hyaline coat; capitulum: obovoid to lenticular, 0.23-0.34 mm in diam.; exciple: dark brown to aeruginose, composed of elongated to almost isodiametric sclerotized hyphae, paler in outer part and +distinctly anticlinally arranged; hypothecium: dark brown with flat or slightly convex upper surface; asci: cylindrical, 35-41 µm x 3.5-4.5 µm, with uniseriate spores; ascospores: semi-mature spores: with a very irregular sulcate pattern (mainly longitudinally arranged ridges, which are disrupted by irregular cracks); mature spores: ellipsoid, 9-13 x 4-6.5 µm, with coarse irregular ornamentation of cracks and ridge fragments; Pycnidia: frequent; conidia: narrowly cylindrical, 4-5 x 0.8 µm; Spot tests: thallus K+ dull yellow, C-, KC-, P-; apothecia I-; Secondary metabolites: either none detected or sekikaic acid (major), 2-O -methylsekikaic acid (minor) and 4-O-methylhypoprotocetraric acid.; Substrate and ecology: on old stumps or standing or fallen wood of coniferous and deciduous trees, more rarely on bark, often in exposed situations; World distribution: northern boreal to temperate zones in North, Central and South America, and Australasia; Sonoran distribution: southern California and Chihuahua.; Notes: Calicium glaucellum is recognized by having rather short-stalked apothecia, the presence of a white rim along the edge of the exciple, the usually immersed thallus, and the medium-sized spores, which have an ornamentation of irregular ridges and cracks. It is very similar to C. abietinum but differs in having a white pruina on the lower side of the apothecium, at least at the edge of the exciple, black instead of brownish stalks and slightly smaller spores with a different spore ornamentation. 
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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Global distribution "Common, particularly in the central and northern parts of [Scandinavia... ]. Widely distributed in cool temperate and temperate areas of both the Northern (North America, Asia, Europe) and the Southern Hemisphere (Australasia, Central and Southern America)" (Tibell 1999). Within North America, widespread in temperate and boreal regions.

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Ecology

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Comments: Number of known occurences worldwide is probably > 1000 (including many historic); Number of known occurrences in North America is probably ca. 300; Number of known occurrences in California = 5+; Number of known occurrences in Oregon = 30+; Number of known occurrences in Washington = 12+; Number of known occurrences in British Columbia = 30+. Rikkinen (2003?) reports on 42 locations from the region. Although the number of extant occurrences worldwide is unknown, the North American occurrences (collections) are recent and are mostly extant.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Widely distributed in cool temperate and temperate areas of North America, Asia, Europe, Australasia, and Central and Southern America. Although, the distribution and population sizes of this species are large enough to qualify for G5, the significant decline of the species since pre-industrial times may justify reducing the rank slightly to G4G5.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.

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Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Comments: With advances in conservation, the removal of old-growth forests throughout the species range is slowing, but has not stopped.

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 50-70%

Comments: Most calicioid lichens and fungi inhabit aged bark or wood in sheltered locations protected from direct rain interception. This species is fairly restricted to the bark and wood of old trees; in the Pacific Northwest of North America, it is typically found on trees > 200 years old, but can occasionally be found on dead wood of younger trees, still > 100 years old (Peterson unpublished data, Rikkinen unpublished data, Peterson & McCune 2000). Removal of old-growth forest in North America and through the rest of the species' distribution has undoubtedly had severe impacts on the number of populations, population sizes, and average dispersal distance necessary to colonize new substrates.

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Threats

Degree of Threat: High

Comments: Worldwide, the species has gone through drastic declines since pre-industrial times. The Pacific Northwest, due to logging, has been no exception. However, the rate of loss in the Pacific Northwest has slowed. Although little is known about the reproductive and dispersal biology of this species, it is thought that the species can overcome some habitat fragmentation and, at this point, is secure from extirpation or extinction. However, given the general old-growth association of this species, it should not be ignored in conservation actions.

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