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 Thallus: foliose, monophyllous, reniform to irregularly spreading, loosely attached at one point, occasionally suberect, 1-4(-6) cm in diam.; lobes: broadly rounded to subirregular often distinctly monophyllous or cochleate, with sinuous, rarely notched or incised, thickened margins rolled under forming a definite ridge below; upper surface: livid slate gray to gray-brown suffused red-brown when moist, pale gray to dull gray-brown or red-brown when dry, undulate, smooth or here and there punctate-impressed or irregularly wrinkled to subfaveolate, in parts glossy, otherwise dull, flabby when moist, papery when dry, with minute, white maculae forming a delicate marbling of upper surface when wet (x 10 lens), without isidia or phyllidia, erose-sorediate; soredia: coarsely granular, gray-blue, in erose, linear marginal soralia or in scattered, rounded, pustular laminal soralia usually close to lobe margins, sometimes also developing in cyphellae on lower surface near margins; medulla: white; photobiont: cyanobacterial; lower surface: pale yellowish buff to gray-brown, red-brown or dark brown, delicately to strongly wrinkled-ridged or striate near margins, elsewhere densely felted-tomentose; tomentum: shaggy, gray to brown-black; cyphellae: sparse, widely scattered, rounded to irregular 0.5-1.5(-2) mm in diam., sunken in tomentum, sometimes pustular and with gray soredia, with very thin, sharply defined, slightly raised margins, with a white basal membrane; Apothecia: not seen; Pycnidia: rare, occasional to scattered near apices, immersed, ostiole dark red-brown, 0.05-0.1 mm in diam., punctate-impressed; conidia: hyaline, bacilliform to slightly curved, 4-6 x 1 µm; Spot tests: all negative; Secondary metabolites: none detected.; Substrate and ecology: on rocks amongst mosses in open forest habitats of moderate to high humidity, 3800 m; World distribution: widespread though nowhere common, pantemperate, pantropical (at higher elevations); Sonoran distribution: rare and local in central California [San Mateo Co: San Francisco Watershed] and perhaps extending southwards into the Sonoran area. 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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