Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

zooxanthellate
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Comprehensive Description

Biology: Skeleton

More info
AuthorSkeleton?Mineral or Organic?MineralPercent Magnesium
Cairns, Hoeksema, and van der Land, 1999 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Wallace, 1999 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Faustino, 1927 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Veron, 2000 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is widespread found in the southwest, northern, and eastern Indian Ocean, the central Indo-Pacific, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan and the East China Sea, and the oceanic west Pacific. This species is reported from Society Island and Pitcairn by Wallace (1999).
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Pillow-like colonies, not quite developing into small, loose tables. Yellow to grey, usually with corallite tips of a different colour. Corallites are long, slender and smooth, marbled or glassy in appearance which makes the species distinctive. Their shape is cylindrical, not flared (Sheppard, 1998). Colonies are corymbose or pillow-like. Horizontal branches are thin and spreading. Upward-projecting branches are fine and radial corallites have flaring lips. Colour: usually grey or bright blue-green or yellow. Tips of branches may be yellow, lime green, pale blue or brown. Abundance: Very common, especially on upper reef slopes and in lagoons, where its pillow shape is best developed. (Veron, 1986 <57>)
  • Veron, J.E.N. (1986). Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Angus & Robertson Publishers, London.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found on shallow reefs on upper reef slopes and lagoons.

This species occurs through a broad depth range, often being found to a depth of 20 m on slopes and walls (Wallace 1999). This species is found from 5-35 m depth (Richards and Fenner pers. comm.).

General genus information: Throughout its range, Acropora can be found on any stretch of reef and is often the dominant coral, especially along the reef front. Staghorn and plate forms flourish in sheltered areas, whereas clusters and semi-massive types can withstand more exposed conditions. Species that occur from the reef top to the reef slope become gradually more flattened with depth (Wood 1983).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 233 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 74 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 47
  Temperature range (°C): 22.219 - 27.846
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.088 - 0.946
  Salinity (PPS): 34.635 - 35.506
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.573 - 4.969
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 0.312
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.523 - 2.743

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 47

Temperature range (°C): 22.219 - 27.846

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.088 - 0.946

Salinity (PPS): 34.635 - 35.506

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.573 - 4.969

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 0.312

Silicate (umol/l): 0.523 - 2.743
 
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Queensland Museum
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A4ce

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Richards, Z., Delbeek, J.C., Lovell, E., Bass, D., Aeby, G. & Reboton, C.

Reviewer/s
Livingstone, S., Polidoro, B. & Smith, J. (Global Marine Species Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread and uncommon throughout its range. It is particularly susceptible to bleaching, disease, crown-of-thorns starfish predation, harvesting for aquarium trade, and extensive reduction of coral reef habitat due to a combination of threats. Specific population trends are unknown but population reduction can be inferred from declines in habitat quality based on the combined estimates of both destroyed reefs and reefs at the critical stage of degradation within its range (Wilkinson 2004). Its threat susceptibility increases the likelihood of being lost within one generation in the future from reefs at a critical stage. Therefore, the estimated habitat degradation and loss of 37% over three generation lengths (30 years) is the best inference of population reduction and meets the threshold for Vulnerable under Criterion A4ce. It will be important to reassess this species in 10 years time because of predicted threats from climate change and ocean acidification.
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Population

Population
This species is usually common in the central Indo-Pacific, it is uncommon elsewhere. It occurred at 17 of 87 surveyed in the Marshall Islands (Z. Richards pers. comm.) and all six regions of Indonesia (Wallace et al. 2001).

There is no species specific population information available for this species. However, there is evidence that overall coral reef habitat has declined, and this is used as a proxy for population decline for this species. This species is particularly susceptible to bleaching, disease, and other threats and therefore population decline is based on both the percentage of destroyed reefs and critical reefs that are likely to be destroyed within 20 years (Wilkinson 2004). We assume that most, if not all, mature individuals will be removed from a destroyed reef and that on average, the number of individuals on reefs are equal across its range and proportional to the percentage destroyed reefs. Reef losses throughout the species' range have been estimated over three generations, two in the past and one projected into the future.

The age of first maturity of most reef building corals is typically three to eight years (Wallace 1999) and therefore we assume that average age of mature individuals is greater than eight years. Furthermore, based on average sizes and growth rates, we assume that average generation length is 10 years, unless otherwise stated. Total longevity is not known, but likely to be more than ten years. Therefore any population decline rates for the Red List assessment are measured over at least 30 years. Follow the link below for further details on population decline and generation length estimates.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This is a fragile species that readily bleaches. Members of this genus have a low resistance and low tolerance to bleaching and disease, and are slow to recover.

Acanthaster planci, the crown-of-thorns starfish, has been observed preferentially preying upon corals of the genus Acropora (Colgan 1987). This species has a corymbose growth form (clumpy plate-like) and therefore, is more susceptible to COTS (De'ath and Moran 1998). Crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) (Acanthaster planci) are found throughout the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and the Red Sea. These starfish voracious predators of reef-building corals, with a preference for branching and tabular corals such as Acropora species. Populations of the crown-of-thorns starfish have greatly increased since the 1970s and have been known to wipe out large areas of coral reef habitat. Increased breakouts of COTS has become a major threat to some species, and have contributed to the overall decline and reef destruction in the Indo-Pacific region. The effects of such an outbreak include the reduction of abundance and surface cover of living coral, reduction of species diversity and composition, and overall reduction in habitat area.

Threats include coral removal and harvesting for display in aquariums and for the curio-trade. This species is present in the aquarium trade (Delbeek pers. comm.). The total number of corals (live and raw) exported for this species in 2005 was three.

In general, the major threat to corals is global climate change, in particular, temperature extremes leading to bleaching and increased susceptibility to disease, increased severity of ENSO events and storms, and ocean acidification.

Coral disease has emerged as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide and a major cause of reef deterioration (Weil et al. 2006). The numbers of diseases and coral species affected, as well as the distribution of diseases have all increased dramatically within the last decade (Porter et al. 2001, Green and Bruckner 2000, Sutherland et al. 2004, Weil 2004). Coral disease epizootics have resulted in significant losses of coral cover and were implicated in the dramatic decline of acroporids in the Florida Keys (Aronson and Precht 2001, Porter et al. 2001, Patterson et al. 2002). In the Indo-Pacific, disease is also on the rise with disease outbreaks recently reported from the Great Barrier Reef (Willis et al. 2004), Marshall Islands (Jacobson 2006) and the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Aeby 2006). Increased coral disease levels on the GBR were correlated with increased ocean temperatures (Willis et al. 2007) supporting the prediction that disease levels will be increasing with higher sea surface temperatures. Escalating anthropogenic stressors combined with the threats associated with global climate change of increases in coral disease, frequency and duration of coral bleaching and ocean acidification place coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific at high risk of collapse.

Localized threats to corals include fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities.

The severity of these combined threats to the global population of each individual species is not known.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
All corals are listed on CITES Appendix II. Parts of the species’ range fall within Marine Protected Areas.

Recommended measures for conserving this species include research in taxonomy, population, abundance and trends, ecology and habitat status, threats and resilience to threats, restoration action; identification, establishment and management of new protected areas; expansion of protected areas; recovery management; and disease, pathogen and parasite management. Artificial propagation and techniques such as cryo-preservation of gametes may become important for conserving coral biodiversity. Recommended conservation measures include population surveys to monitor the effects of collecting for the aquarium trade, especially in Indonesia.

Having timely access to national-level trade data for CITES analysis reports would be valuable for monitoring trends this species. The species is targeted by collectors for the aquarium trade and fisheries management is required for the species, e.g., MPAs, quotas, size limits, etc. Consideration of the suitability of species for aquaria should also be included as part of fisheries management, and population surveys should be carried out to monitor the effects of harvesting.
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