Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology: Skeleton

More info
AuthorSkeleton?Mineral or Organic?MineralPercent Magnesium
Cairns, Hoeksema, and van der Land, 1999 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Veron and Wallace, 1984 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Veron, 2000 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Wallace, 1999 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
Crossland, 1952 YES MINERAL ARAGONITE
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is widespread, found in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, the south-west and northern Indian Ocean, the central Indo-Pacific, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan and the East China Sea, and the oceanic west Pacific. It is also found in Palau (Randall 1995).

There is a discrepancy between records from Wallace (1999) and those illustrated in Veron (2000).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs on shallow reefs, especially exposed upper reef slopes and sand flats. This species is found on subtidal reef flats, reef edges and reef slopes to about 15 m depth (Wallace 1999). This is a brooder and therefore has a smaller sexual reproductive output and limited dispersal capacity.

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 67 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 14 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 60
  Temperature range (°C): 26.503 - 28.867
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.088 - 0.946
  Salinity (PPS): 34.449 - 35.095
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.573 - 4.685
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 0.312
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.900 - 1.999

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 60

Temperature range (°C): 26.503 - 28.867

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.088 - 0.946

Salinity (PPS): 34.449 - 35.095

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.573 - 4.685

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 0.312

Silicate (umol/l): 0.900 - 1.999
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Isopora brueggemanni

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACGGCCTTCATT---ATGTTAATAAGATTAGAGCTCTCGGCTCCGGGGGCTATGCTAGGAGAC---GATCATCTTTATAATGTAATTGTTACGGCACACGCTTTTATTATGATTTTTTTTTTGCTTATGCCAGTGATGATAGGGGGGTTTGAAAATTGGTTGGTTCCACTA---TATATTGGTGCTACCGACATGGCCTTCCCCCGGCTTAATAATATTAGTTTTTGGTTGTTGCCTCCTGCTCTAATATTATTATTAGGCTCCGCTTTTGTTGAACAAGGAGTTGGTACCGGGTGGACGGTGTATCCTCCTCTATCGAGCATCCAGGCCCACTCTGGGGGGGCGGTAGACATG---GCTATTTTTAGCCTTCACTTAGCTGGGGTGTCTTCGATTTTGGGTGCAATGAATTTTATAACAACTATATTTAATATGCGGGCCCCTGGGATGACATTAAATAAAATGCCATTGTTTGTGTGGTCTATCTTGATTACTGCTTTTTTATTATTACTGTCTTTGCCAGTATTAGCGGGG---GCCCTAACCATGCTTTTAACGGATAGAAATTTTAATACCACTTTTTTTGATCCCGCCGGAGGGGGAGACCCAATTTTATTTCAGCAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Isopora brueggemanni

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A4ce

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Richards, Z., Delbeek, J.C., Lovell, E., Bass, D., Aeby, G. & Reboton, C.

Reviewer/s
Livingstone, S., Polidoro, B. & Smith, J. (Global Marine Species Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread and common throughout its range but has limited reproductive and dispersal capacity because it is a brooder. It is also particularly susceptible to disease and extensive reduction of coral reef habitat due to a combination of threats. Specific population trends are unknown but population reduction can be inferred from declines in habitat quality based on the combined estimates of both destroyed reefs and reefs at the critical stage of degradation within its range (Wilkinson 2004). Its threat susceptibility increases the likelihood of being lost within one generation in the future from reefs at a critical stage. Therefore, the estimated habitat degradation and loss of 39% over three generation lengths (30 years) is the best inference of population reduction and meets the threshold for Vulnerable under Criterion A4ce. It will be important to reassess this species in 10 years time because of predicted threats from climate change and ocean acidification.
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Population

Population
This is a common species.

There is no species specific population information available for this species. However, there is evidence that overall coral reef habitat has declined, and this is used as a proxy for population decline for this species. This species is particularly susceptible to bleaching, disease, and other threats and therefore population decline is based on both the percentage of destroyed reefs and critical reefs that are likely to be destroyed within 20 years (Wilkinson 2004). We assume that most, if not all, mature individuals will be removed from a destroyed reef and that on average, the number of individuals on reefs are equal across its range and proportional to the percentage destroyed reefs. Reef losses throughout the species' range have been estimated over three generations, two in the past and one projected into the future.

The age of first maturity of most reef building corals is typically three to eight years (Wallace 1999) and therefore we assume that average age of mature individuals is greater than eight years. Furthermore, based on average sizes and growth rates, we assume that average generation length is 10 years, unless otherwise stated. Total longevity is not known, but likely to be more than ten years. Therefore any population decline rates for the Red List assessment are measured over at least 30 years. Follow the link below for further details on population decline and generation length estimates.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Members of this genus have a low resistance and low tolerance to bleaching and disease, and are slow to recover. A disease has been recorded for this species (Willis et al. 2004) and therefore likely to be susceptible.

This is a brooder and therefore has a smaller sexual reproductive output and limited dispersal capacity.

In general, the major threat to corals is global climate change, in particular, temperature extremes leading to bleaching and increased susceptibility to disease, increased severity of ENSO events and storms, and ocean acidification.

Coral disease has emerged as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide and a major cause of reef deterioration (Weil et al. 2006). The numbers of diseases and coral species affected, as well as the distribution of diseases have all increased dramatically within the last decade (Porter et al. 2001, Green and Bruckner 2000, Sutherland et al. 2004, Weil 2004). Coral disease epizootics have resulted in significant losses of coral cover and were implicated in the dramatic decline of acroporids in the Florida Keys (Aronson and Precht 2001, Porter et al. 2001, Patterson et al. 2002). In the Indo-Pacific, disease is also on the rise with disease outbreaks recently reported from the Great Barrier Reef (Willis et al. 2004), Marshall Islands (Jacobson 2006) and the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Aeby 2006). Increased coral disease levels on the GBR were correlated with increased ocean temperatures (Willis et al. 2007) supporting the prediction that disease levels will be increasing with higher sea surface temperatures. Escalating anthropogenic stressors combined with the threats associated with global climate change of increases in coral disease, frequency and duration of coral bleaching and ocean acidification place coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific at high risk of collapse.

Localized threats to corals include fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities.

The severity of these combined threats to the global population of each individual species is not known.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
All corals are listed on CITES Appendix II. Parts of the species’ range fall within Marine Protected Areas.

Recommended measures for conserving this species include research in taxonomy, population, abundance and trends, ecology and habitat status, threats and resilience to threats, restoration action; identification, establishment and management of new protected areas; expansion of protected areas; recovery management; and disease, pathogen and parasite management. Artificial propagation and techniques such as cryo-preservation of gametes may become important for conserving coral biodiversity.
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