The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bonnet, David D.1946.The Portuguese Man of War as a Food Source for the Sand Crab. Science.103(2666):148.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,.. 2002. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115
  • Cormier, Susan M.1981.Physalia Venom Mediates Histamine Release From Mast Cells. The Journal of Experimental Zoology.218(2):117.
  • Crothers, J. A., (1997). A key to the major groups of British marine invertebrates. Field Studies, 9, 1-177. External link.
  • Hickman, C.P. & Larry S. Roberts.1995.Animal Diversity.Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque.
  • Hickman, C.P.1961.Integrated Principles of Zoology. The C.V. Mosby Co., St.Louis.
  • Hoover, M. (2008). Portuguese Man -of-war (Physalia physalis). Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda. 2010,
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • Jenkins, Robert L. 1983. Observations on the commensal relationship of Nomeus gronovii with Physalia physalis. Copeia1983(1):250-252.
  • Kennedy, Frank S., Jr. 1972. Distribution and Abundance of Physalia in Florida Waters. Professional Paper Series Florida Department of Natural Resources Marine Research Laboratory.(18):30-31,36-37.
  • Kirkpatrick, P.A., & Pugh, P.R., (1984). Siphonophores and Velellids London: Academic Press. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 29.] External link.
  • Lane, Charles E.1960. The Portuguese Man of War. Scientific American. 202(3):158-168.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp.
  • Moyano H. 1995. Bryozoa. En: S Simonetti JA, MTK Arroyo, A Spotorno & E Lozada (eds) Diversidad Biológica de Chile. Comité Nacional de Diversidad Biológica. Comisión Nacinal de Investigación Cientñifica y Tecnológica, Santiago Chile. 364 pp.
  • NBN (National Biodiversity Network), (2002). National Biodiversity Network gateway., 2008-10-31 00:00:00 External link.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Parker, Sybil P. 1982. Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.
  • Pennak, Robert W. 1978. Fresh-Water Invertebrates of the United States.John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • Physalia physalis
  • Purcell, Jennifer E. 1984. Predation on Fish Larvae by Physalia physalis, The Portuguese Man of War. Marine Ecology.19(1,2):189.
  • Ruppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., (1994). Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing. External link.
  • Schuchert P. (2015). WoRMS Hydrozoa: World Hydrozoa database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Schuchert, P.; Mapstone, G. (2015). Physalia physalis (Linnaeus, 1758). In: Schuchert, P. (2015) World Hydrozoa database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Shale, David & Jennifer Coldrey.1987.The Man of War At Sea. Gareth Stevens Publishing, Milwaukee.
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
  • Williamson, J.A., Fenner, P.J., Burnett, J.W. & Rifkin, J.F., (1996). Venomous and poisonous marine animals: a medical and biological handbook. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. External link.
  • Wilson, D.P., (1947). The Portuguese man-o-war, Physalia physalis L. in British and adjacent seas. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 27, 139-172. External link.
  • [Anonymous] (2010). Portuguese Man o' War. Wikipedia. 2010,
  • [Anonymous] (2010). Portuguese Man-of-war Physalia physalis. National Geographic. 2010,


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