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Agaricus bisporus

Agaricus bisporus is an edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America. It has two color states while immature—white and brown—both of which have various names. When mature, the same mushroom has yet another popular name.

When immature and white—this mushroom may be known as common mushroom, button mushroom, white mushroom, cultivated mushroom, table mushroom, and champignon mushroom. When immature and brown—this mushroom may be known variously as Swiss brown mushroom, Roman brown mushroom, Italian brown, Italian mushroom, cremini or crimini mushroom, brown cap mushroom, or chestnut mushroom.[2]

When mature, the same mushroom is known as Portobello mushroom.

Agaricus bisporus is cultivated in more than seventy countries,[3] and it is one of the most commonly and widely consumed mushrooms in the world.

Agaricus bisporus
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Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium
cap is convex
hymenium is free
stipe has a ring
spore print is brown
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: choice

Taxonomy and naming[edit]

The common mushroom has a complicated taxonomic history. It was first described by English botanist Mordecai Cubitt Cooke in his 1871 Handbook of British Fungi, as a variety (var. hortensis) of Agaricus campestris.[4][5] Danish mycologist Jakob Emanuel Lange later reviewed a cultivar specimen, and dubbed it Psalliota hortensis var. bispora in 1926.[6] In 1938, it was promoted to species status and renamed Psalliota bispora.[7] Emil Imbach imparted the current scientific name of the species, Agaricus bisporus, after the genus Psalliota was renamed to Agaricus in 1946.[3] The specific epithet bispora distinguishes the two-spored basidia from four-spored varieties.

Among English speakers, Agaricus bisporus is known by many names. A young specimen with a closed cap and either pale white or light brown flesh is known as a button mushroom or white mushroom. In strains with darker flesh, the immature mushroom is variously marketed as a cremini mushroom, baby portobello, baby bella, mini bella, portabellini, Roman mushroom, Italian mushroom, or brown mushroom. At this stage of maturation, the cap also may begin to open slightly. In maturity, the mushroom is called a portobello.[8] The French name is champignon de Paris ("Paris mushroom").

The spellings "portobello", "portabella", and "portabello" are all used,[9] but the first of these spellings is the most common.[citation needed]

Description[edit]

Agaricus bisporus, white raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy93 kJ (22 kcal)
3.26 g
Sugars1.98 g
Dietary fiber1 g
0.34 g
3.09 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(7%)
0.081 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(34%)
0.402 mg
Niacin (B3)
(24%)
3.607 mg
(30%)
1.497 mg
Vitamin B6
(8%)
0.104 mg
Folate (B9)
(4%)
17 μg
Vitamin B12
(2%)
0.04 μg
Vitamin C
(3%)
2.1 mg
Vitamin D
(1%)
0.2 μg
Trace metals
Iron
(4%)
0.5 mg
Magnesium
(3%)
9 mg
Phosphorus
(12%)
86 mg
Potassium
(7%)
318 mg
Sodium
(0%)
3 mg
Zinc
(5%)
0.52 mg
Other constituents
Water92.45 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The pileus or cap of the original wild species is a pale grey-brown in color, with broad, flat scales on a paler background and fading toward the margins. It is first hemispherical in shape before flattening out with maturity, and 5–10 cm (2–4 in) in diameter. The narrow, crowded gills are free and initially pink, then red-brown and finally a dark brown with a whitish edge from the cheilocystidia. The cylindrical stipe is up to 6 cm (2⅓ in) tall by 1–2 cm wide and bears a thick and narrow ring, which may be streaked on the upper side. The firm flesh is white although stains a pale pinkish-red on bruising.[10][11] The spore print is dark brown. The spores are oval to round and measure approximately 4.5–5.5 x 5–7.5 μm, and the basidia usually two-spored, although two-tetrasporic varieties have been described from the Mojave desert and the Mediterranean with predominantly heterothallic and homothallic lifestyles, respectively.[12][13]

This mushroom is commonly found worldwide in fields and grassy areas following rain, from late spring through to autumn, especially in association with manure. It is widely collected and eaten, even by those who would not normally experiment with mushroom hunting.[11]

Similar species[edit]

The common mushroom could be confused with young specimens of the deadly poisonous destroying angel (Amanita sp.), but the latter may be distinguished by their volva or cup at the base of the mushroom and pure white gills (as opposed to pinkish or brown of Agaricus bisporus). Thus it is always important to clear away debris and examine the base of such similar mushrooms, as well as cutting open young specimens to check the gills. Furthermore, the destroying angel grows in mossy woods and lives symbiotically with spruce.

A more common and less dangerous mistake is to confuse Agaricus bisporus with Agaricus xanthodermus, an inedible mushroom found worldwide in grassy areas. Agaricus xanthodermus has an odor reminiscent of phenol; its flesh turns yellow when bruised. This fungus causes nausea and vomiting in some people.

The poisonous European species, Entoloma sinuatum, has a passing resemblance as well, but has yellowish gills turning pink and it lacks a ring.

Cultivation history[edit]

Agaricus bisporus being cultivated.

The earliest description of the commercial cultivation of Agaricus bisporus was made by French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort in 1707.[14] French agriculturist Olivier de Serres noted that transplanting mushroom mycelia would lead to more mushrooms.

Originally, cultivation was unreliable as mushroom growers would watch for good flushes of mushrooms in fields before digging up the mycelium and replanting them in beds of composted manure or inoculating 'bricks' of compressed litter, loam, and manure. Spawn collected this way contained pathogens and crops commonly would be infected, or not grow at all.[15] In 1893, sterilized, or pure culture, spawn was discovered and produced by the Pasteur Institute in Paris, for cultivation on composted horse manure.[16] Today's commercial variety of the common mushroom originally was a light brown color.

In 1926, a Pennsylvania mushroom farmer found a clump of common mushrooms with white caps in his mushroom bed. As with the reception of white bread, it was seen as a more attractive food item and became very popular.[17] Similar to the commercial development history of the navel orange and Red Delicious apple, cultures were grown from the mutant individuals, and most of the cream-colored store mushrooms marketed today are products of this 1926 chance natural mutation.

Agaricus bisporus is now cultivated in at least seventy countries throughout the world.[3] Global production in the early 1990s was reported to be more than 1.5 million tons, worth more than US$ 2 billion.[18]

Vitamin D[edit]

While Agaricus bisporus only contains 16 IU of vitamin D as ergocalciferol (vitamin D2), since it also contains high amounts of ergosterol, after temporary exposure to UV light the ergocalciferol contents increase.[19][20][21]

Potential medicinal value[edit]

Agaricus bisporus also contains sodium, potassium, and phosphorus,[22] conjugated linoleic acid,[23] and antioxidants.[24] Protocatechuic acid and pyrocatechol also are found in A. bisporus.[25][26] A 2009 case control study of 2,018 women correlated a large decrease of the incidence of breast cancer in women who consumed mushrooms. Women in the study who consumed fresh mushrooms daily were 64% less likely to develop breast cancer than the control group, and additionally, those who combined a mushroom diet with regular green tea consumption reduced their risk of breast cancer by nearly 90%.[27]

A phytochemical (2-aminophenoxazine-3-one) in white button mushrooms was shown to have aromatase inhibitor properties in vitro.[28][29]

The table mushroom also has been shown to possess possible immune system enhancing properties. An in vitro study demonstrated that the mushroom enhanced dendritic cell function.[30][31]

Mycochemical research[edit]

Some 1990 studies have revealed that compounds in raw A. bisporus—along with some other edible mushrooms—contain hydrazine derivatives, including agaritine and gyromitrin, that have been evaluated for carcinogenic activity.[32][33] In preliminary research during the 1980s, administration of uncooked mushrooms to mice induced a significant increase in the number of bone, stomach, and lung tumours,[34][35] however, research also has noted that when cooked, these compounds were reduced significantly,[36] and in fact, may provide anti-carcinogenic activity by stimulating apoptosis.[37]

Nonetheless, according to a scientific publication dated 2010, the available evidence to date suggests that agaritine (a hydrazine) consumed during the consumption of cultivated A. bisporus mushrooms poses no known toxicological risk to healthy humans.[38]

Agaricus bisporus gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Imbach EJ. (1946). "Pilzflora des Kantons Luzern und der angrenzen Innerschweiz". Mitteilungen der naturforschenden Gesellschaft Luzern (in German) 15: 5–85. 
  2. ^ Think Vegetables: Chestnut mushroom Retrieved 2013-04-01
  3. ^ a b c (Italian) Cappelli, Alberto (1984). Fungi Europaei:Agaricus. Saronno, Italy: Giovanna Biella. pp. 123–25. 
  4. ^ Cooke MC. (1871). Handbook of British Fungi 1. London: Macmillan and Co. p. 138. 
  5. ^ "Species Fungorum - Species synonymy". Index Fungorum. CAB International. Retrieved January 21, 2010. 
  6. ^ Lange JE. (1926). "Studies in the agarics of Denmark. Part VI. Psalliota, Russula". Dansk botanisk Arkiv 4 (12): 1–52. 
  7. ^ Schäffer J, Møller FH. (1939). "Beitrag zur Psalliota Forschung". Annales Mycologici (in German) 36 (1): 64–82. 
  8. ^ "Agaricus bisporus: The Button Mushroom". Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 
  9. ^ "portobello, n.2". OED Online. Oxford University Press. June 2011. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  10. ^ Zeitlmayr L (1976). Wild Mushrooms:An Illustrated Handbook. Garden City Press, Hertfordshire. pp. 82–83. ISBN 0-584-10324-7. 
  11. ^ a b Carluccio A (2003). The Complete Mushroom Book. Quadrille. pp. 21–22. ISBN 1-84400-040-0. 
  12. ^ Callac P, Billette C, Imbernon M, Kerrigan RW (1993). "Morphological, genetic, and interfertility analyses reveal a novel, tetrasporic variety of Agaricus bisporus from the Sonoran Desert of California". Mycologia 85 (5): 835–851. doi:10.2307/3760617. JSTOR 3760617. 
  13. ^ Callac P, Imbernon M, Guinberteau J, Pirobe L, Granit S, Olivier JM, Theochari I (2000). "Discovery of a wild Mediterranean population of Agaricus bisporus, and its usefulness for breeding work". Mushroom Science 15: 245–252. 
  14. ^ Spencer DM. (1985). "The mushroom–its history and importance". In Flegg PB, Spencer DM, Wood DA. The Biology and Technology of the Cultivated Mushroom. New York: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 1–8. ISBN 0-471-90435-X. 
  15. ^ Genders 1969, p. 19
  16. ^ Genders 1969, p. 18
  17. ^ Genders 1969, p. 121
  18. ^ Chang ST. (1993). "Mushroom biology: the impact on mushroom production and mushroom products". In Chiu S-W, Buswell J, Chang S-T. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press. pp. 3–20. ISBN 962-201-610-3. 
  19. ^ "Mushrooms and vitamin D". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 23, 2003. 
  20. ^ Koyyalamudi SR, Jeong SC, Song CH, Cho KY, Pang G (April 2009). "Vitamin D2 formation and bioavailability from Agaricus bisporus button mushrooms treated with ultraviolet irradiation". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (8): 3351–5. doi:10.1021/jf803908q. PMID 19281276. 
  21. ^ Lee GS, Byun HS, Yoon KH, Lee JS, Choi KC, Jeung EB (2009). "Dietary calcium and vitamin D2 supplementation with enhanced Lentinula edodes improves osteoporosis-like symptoms and induces duodenal and renal active calcium transport gene expression in mice". European Journal of Nutrition 48 (2): 75–83. doi:10.1007/s00394-008-0763-2. PMID 19093162. 
  22. ^ Benjamin, Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas, p. 67
  23. ^ Chen, S.; Oh, SR; Phung, S; Hur, G; Ye, JJ; Kwok, SL; Shrode, GE; Belury, M et al. (2006). "Anti-aromatase activity of phytochemicals in white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)". Cancer Res. 66 (24): 12026–34. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-2206. PMID 17178902. 
  24. ^ Shi YL, James AE, Benzie IF, Buswell JA. (2002). "Mushroom-derived preparations in the prevention of H2O2-induced oxidative damage to cellular DNA". Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 22 (2): 103–11. doi:10.1002/tcm.10008. PMID 11835288. 
  25. ^ Delsignore, A; Romeo, F; Giaccio, M (1997). "Content of phenolic substances in basidiomycetes". Mycological Research 101: 552–6. doi:10.1017/S0953756296003206. 
  26. ^ A salad fixin’ with medical benefits?. City of Hope. Retrieved August 23, 2003. 
  27. ^ Zhang, M; Huang, J; Xie, X; Holman, CD (March 2009). "Dietary intakes of mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women". International Journal of Cancer 124 (6): 1404–1408. doi:10.1002/ijc.24047. ISSN 0020-7136. PMID 19048616. 
  28. ^ Kohno, K.; Miyake, M.; Sano, O.; Tanaka-Kataoka, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Koya-Miyata, S.; Arai, N.; Fujii, M.; Watanabe, H.; Ushio, S.; Iwaki, K.; Fukuda, S. (2008). "Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one". Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin 31 (10): 1938–1945. doi:10.1248/bpb.31.1938. PMID 18827359.  edit
  29. ^ Grube, B. J.; Eng, E. T.; Kao, Y. C.; Kwon, A.; Chen, S. (2001). "White button mushroom phytochemicals inhibit aromatase activity and breast cancer cell proliferation". The Journal of nutrition 131 (12): 3288–3293. PMID 11739882.  edit
  30. ^ Ren Z, Guo Z, Meydani SN, Wu D (March 2008). "White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice". J. Nutr. 138 (3): 544–50. PMID 18287364. 
  31. ^ Wu D, Pae M, Ren Z, Guo Z, Smith D, Meydani SN (June 2007). "Dietary supplementation with white button mushroom enhances natural killer cell activity in C57BL/6 mice". J. Nutr. 137 (6): 1472–7. PMID 17513409. 
  32. ^ Hashida C, Hayashi K, Jie L, Haga S, Sakurai M, Shimizu H (June 1990). "[Quantities of agaritine in mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and the carcinogenicity of mushroom methanol extracts on the mouse bladder epithelium]". Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi (in Japanese) 37 (6): 400–5. PMID 2132000. 
  33. ^ Sieger AA (ed.) (January 1, 1998). "Spore Prints #338". Bulletin of the Puget Sound Mycological Society. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  34. ^ Toth B, Erickson J. 1986. Cancer induction in mice by feeding of the uncooked cultivated mushroom of commerce Agaricus bisporus. Cancer Research 46:4007–4011
  35. ^ Toth B, Gannett P, Visek WJ, Patil K. 1998. Carcinogenesis studies with the lyophilized mushroom Agaricus bisporus in mice. In Vivo 12:239–244
  36. ^ Agartine, Fungi.com
  37. ^ Akiyama H, Endo M, Matsui T, Katsuda I, Emi N, Kawamoto Y, Koike T, Beppu H (May 2011). "Agaritine from Agaricus blazei Murrill induces apoptosis in the leukemic cell line U937". Biochim Biophys Acta 1810 (5): 519–25. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2011.02.010. PMID 21382445. 
  38. ^ Roupasa P, Keogh J, Noakes M, Margettsa C, Taylor P (April 2010). "Mushrooms and agaritine: A mini-review". Journal of Functional Foods 2 (2): 91–8. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2010.04.003. 

References[edit]

  • Benjamin, Denis R. (1995). Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas—a handbook for naturalists, mycologists and physicians. New York: WH Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-2600-9. 
  • Genders, Roy (1969). Mushroom Growing for Everyone. London: Faber. ISBN 0-571-08992-5. 
  • Kuo, M. (January 2004). "Agaricus bisporus: The common mushroom". MushroomExpert.Com. 
  • City of Hope Research [1]

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