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BiologyFound on the continental shelf, often in shallow water (Ref. 247). Occurs close inshore, in bays and estuaries (Ref. 6871), with larger individuals ranging into deeper waters offshore and deep channels in bays (Ref. 247). Usually cruising steadily and slowly near the bottom (sometimes in water as shallow as a meter), but sometimes at the surface (Ref. 247). Can dash at speed when attacking prey (Ref. 247). Feeds on anything, including other sharks, rays, chimaeras, bony fish, hagfish, dolphin and porpoise meat, seals, shark egg cases, sea snails and mammalian carrion, including rats and humans (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449), with 82 to 95 young in a litter (Ref. 31395). Aggressive when provoked, and regarded as potentially dangerous to people in open waters (Ref. 247). It has attacked divers in captivity and may be involved in a few shark attacks off California and South Africa (Ref. 247). Often caught by anglers from the shore (Ref. 6574). Utilized for human consumption, its skin for leather, and its liver as a source of oil (Ref. 247).