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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: man-of-war fish (English), derivante (Espanol), pez (Espanol)
 
Nomeus gronovii (Gmelin, 1789)


Man-of-war fish



Body elongate; eye large, with a fatty ring around it; mouth small, usually ends before eye; teeth small, conical, ~ 1 row on jaws; teeth on center and sides of roof of mouth, and on bases of gill arches, but none on tongue; opercle thin, with 2 flat spines;  gill rakers 8 + 15 -19; 2 scarcely separated dorsal fins, IX-XII + I, 24-28, spines fold into a groove, its origin behind (in small specimens directly over) pectoral origin, longest spine slightly longer than longest ray; anal fin I-II, 24-29; pelvics insert before or under pectoral base, fan shaped, attached to belly along entire length, folds into a groove; pectoral rays 19-24, fin pointed and wing-like; scales on head in a broad band, extending before eyes; lateral line complete, high along back. Juvenile with greatly enlarged pelvic fins, round pectoral, deeply forked tail; lateral line ends under end of dorsal fin base.

Juveniles: silvery with black bars and spots, pelvic fins black with white blotches; adults: uniformly dark brown.


Size: reaches 40 cm.

Inhabits surface layers of the high seas; young are associated with drifting Man-of-War siphonophores (Physalia).


Depth: 0-20 m.


Worldwide in warm temperate and tropical seas. The tip of Baja California to the eastern Gulf of California to Peru and the oceanic islands.
   
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Biology

Found offshore in warm waters. Juveniles pelagic in coastal and offshore waters down to at least 30 m, but adults possibly demersal in deep water (Ref. 9563). Occur in association with floating Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia, feeding on its tentacles and gonads and may drift with it into shore waters with proper wind conditions (Ref. 4777). Probably also feed on other soft-bodied jellyfish as well as on zooplankton (Ref.4777).
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Distribution

Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 20 (S)
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans), "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific), All Pacific (West + Central + East), East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West), Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America), East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Stray off the Grand Bank; common in the Sargasso Sea; off Bermuda, around the Bahamas; and in the Gulf of Mexico, southward to Brazil
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Western Atlantic: Newfoundland, Canada and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: north-west Africa and the Canary Islands (Ref. 4777); also São Tomé Island (Ref. 34088). Not recorded from the Mediterranean and most of the eastern Atlantic (Ref. 9834). Indian and Pacific: widely distributed.
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Circumglobal in tropical through subtropical seas (including Mascarenes, Hawaiian Islands).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 40.0 (S)
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Dorsal spines (total): 9 - 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 24 - 28; Analspines: 1 - 2; Analsoft rays: 24 - 29; Vertebrae: 41
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Size

Maximum size: 390 mm TL
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Max. size

39.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4412))
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Found offshore in warm waters. Juveniles pelagic in coastal and offshore waters down to at least 30 m, but adults possibly demersal in deep water (Ref. 9563). Occurs in association with floating Portuguese man-of-war, @Physalia@, feeding on its tentacles and gonads and may drift with it into shore waters with proper wind conditions (Ref. 4777). Probably also feeds on other soft-bodied jellyfish as well as on zooplankton (Ref.4777).
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Juveniles whitish or silvery with dark blue mottlings; pelvic fins black (Ref. 4412). Dark blue above, side silvery with patches of dark blue. Pelvic fin with inner rays joined to abdomen by membrane for its entire length (Ref. 26938).
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 24 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 14 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 1220
  Temperature range (°C): 3.767 - 27.514
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.286 - 42.969
  Salinity (PPS): 34.578 - 36.238
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.289 - 4.814
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 3.062
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.921 - 109.203

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 1220

Temperature range (°C): 3.767 - 27.514

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.286 - 42.969

Salinity (PPS): 34.578 - 36.238

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.289 - 4.814

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 3.062

Silicate (umol/l): 0.921 - 109.203
 
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Offshore Only, Offshore

Water Column Position: Surface, Near Surface, Mid Water, Water column only

Habitat: Water column, Jellyfish

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Found offshore in warm waters. Juveniles pelagic in coastal and offshore waters down to at least 30 m, but adults possibly demersal in deep water.
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nektonic
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Environment

demersal; marine; depth range 200 - 1000 m (Ref. 58302)
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Depth range based on 24 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 14 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 1220
  Temperature range (°C): 3.767 - 27.514
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.286 - 42.969
  Salinity (PPS): 34.578 - 36.238
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.289 - 4.814
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 3.062
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.921 - 109.203

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 1220

Temperature range (°C): 3.767 - 27.514

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.286 - 42.969

Salinity (PPS): 34.578 - 36.238

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.289 - 4.814

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 3.062

Silicate (umol/l): 0.921 - 109.203
 
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore, Planktivore

Diet: pelagic jellyfish/ctenophores
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Large numbers occur in association with floating Physalia, casually swimming in and out of the tentacles and sheltering under the bell. Feeds on the tentacles and gonads of Physalia, probably other soft-bodied jellyfishes as well, also zooplankton. The mottled color pattern of the fish closely mimics the bunched and retracted tentacles. The fish is relatively immune to the toxin of the siphonophore, but none the less is on occasion killed and eaten by its host (Ref. 4777).
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Occurs in association with floating Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia, feeding on its tentacles and gonads and may drift with it into shore waters with proper wind conditions. Probably also feeds on other soft-bodied jellyfish as well as on zooplankton
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Nomeus gronovii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Nomeus gronovii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: unknown; price reliability:
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Wikipedia

Man-of-war fish

Nomeus gronovii, the man-of-war fish, is a species of driftfish native to the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, where adults are generally found at depths from 200 to 1,000 m (660 to 3,280 ft). It is notable for its ability to live within the deadly tentacles of a siphonophore, the Portuguese man o' war, upon whose tentacles and gonads it feeds. The fish is striped with blackish-blue blemishes covering its body, and the caudal fin is extremely forked. It can reach a length of 39 cm (15 in). It is of minor importance to commercial fisheries. This species is the only known member of its genus.[1]

Toxin avoidance[edit]

Rather than using mucus to prevent nematocysts from firing, as is seen in some of the clown fish sheltering among sea anemones, the fish appears to use highly agile swimming to physically avoid tentacles.[2][3]

The fish has a very high number of vertebrae (41), which may add to its agility[3] and primarily uses its pectoral fins for swimming—a feature of fish that specialize in maneuvering tight spaces. It also has a complex skin design and at least one antigen to the man o' war's toxin.[3] Although the fish seems to be 10 times more resistant to the toxin than other fish, it can be stung by the dactylozooides (large tentacles), which it actively avoids.[2] The smaller gonozooids do not seem to sting the fish and the fish is reported to frequently "nibble" on these tentacles.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Nomeus gronovii" in FishBase. February 2014 version.
  2. ^ a b c Jenkins, R. L. (1983): Observations on the Commensal Relationship of Nomeus gronovii with Physalia physalis. Copeia, Vol. 1983, No. 1 (Feb. 10, 1983), pp. 250-252
  3. ^ a b c Purcell, J. E. & M. N. Arai (2001): Interactions of pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores with fish: a review. Hydrobiologia, May 2001, Volume 451, Issue 1-3, pp 27-44
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