Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Chinese (Simplified) (4) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

The ghost pipefishes (family Solenostomidae) are skin-brooding fishes related to the true pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae) (skin-brooding involves the attachment of developing eggs to the body surface of a parent). They are found only in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, inhabiting shallow tropical waters associated with rocky crystalline reefs and vegetation. Unlike syngnathids, in which males brood the eggs, ghost pipefish embryos develop within a brood sac formed by the pelvic fins of the female. Wetzel and Wourms (1995) review the anatomy, physiology, and evolution of solenostomid reproductive behavior. According to Kawahara et al. (2008), evidence from phylogenetic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes indicates that the Solenomostidae form the sister group to Syngnathidae, with the sea moths (family Pegasidae) sister to this pair of lineages.

.

The family Solenostomidae includes a single genus (Solenostomus) with four or five currently recognized species: S. paradoxus, S. armatus, S. cyanopterus, S. halimeda, and possibly S. leptosoma (Orr et al. 2002; Nelson 2006). The distribution of the genus ranges from the Red Sea and South Africa east to the Maldives, Indonesia, China, southern Japan, Papua New Guinea, and the Marshall Islands and Fiji. Ghost pipefishes are often associated with the marine plant Halophila or the seaweeds Cystoseira or Sargassum and are believed to be limited to depths between ~30 to 40 m, although pairs of S. cyanopterus have been reported from just 3 m. Ghost pipefish look like truncated true pipefish. They have laterally compressed bodies, two separate dorsal fins, a large anal fin that is similar in shape to the second dorsal fin, and a large ventral fin. The head resembles that of true pipefishes, but in Solenostomus the head represents over a third of the total body length, whereas in syngnathid pipefishes the head accounts for at most an eighth of total length. Solenostomids lack scales, but instead develop a dermal skeleton of plates. In females, the ventral fin is enlarged and continuous with the ventral body surface to form a pouch or brood sac for holding eggs (possibly as many as 350). (Fishelson 1966; Orr and Fritzsche 1993; Wetzel and Wourms 1995 and references therein; Orr et al. 2002)

External skin brooding has evolved independently in several groups of fishes. Among these, Solenostomus and certain South American catfishes share the development of cotylephores, which are special sites for the attachment of developing embryos (within the fused pelvic fins of Solenostomus and on the ventral surface of Platystacus catfishes and other aspredinid cattfishes of the tribe Aspredini). Cotylephores are transient outgrowths of tissue that occur only on brooding fish. Wetzel et al. (1997) analyze this striking example of convergent evolution.

Ghost pipefishes are ambush predators. At birth, juveniles must immediately find suitable shelter to begin feeding and hide from predators. (Werzel and Wourms 1995)

The Robust Ghost Pipefish (Solenostomus cyanopterus) has a relatively deep snout; a deep, short caudal peduncle, with a mode of eight caudal peduncle plates; an absence of abdominal spinules; and males with premaxillary spines. It is distributed from South Africa and the Red Sea to the Maldives, Indonesia, southern Japan, Guam, New Guinea, Australia, and Fiji. Orr and Fritzsche (1993) and Orr et al. (2002) should be consulted for detailed descriptions of the morphology and geographic distributions of the recognized ghost pipefish species.

  • Fishelson, L. 1966. Solenostomus cyanopterus Bleeker (Teleostei, Solenostomidae) in Elat (Gulf of Akaba). Israel Journal of Zoology 15: 95-103.
  • Kawahara, R., Miya, M., Mabuchi, K., Lavoue, S., Inoue, J. G., Satoh, T. P., Kawaguchi, A. and M. Nishida, M. 2008. Interrelationships of the 11 gasterosteiform families (sticklebacks, pipefishes, and their relatives): a new perspective based on whole mitogenome sequences from 75 higher teleosts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46: 224–236.
  • Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the World, 4th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.
  • Orr, J. W., & R.A. Fritzsche. 1993. Revision of the Ghost Pipefishes, Family Solenostomidae (Teleostei: Syngnathoidei). Copeia 1993(1): 168-182.
  • Orr, J. W., R. A. Fritzsche, and J. E. Randall. 2002. Solenostomus halimeda, a new species of ghost pipefish (Teleostei: Gasterosteiformes) from the Indo Pacific, with a revised key to known species of the family Solenostomidae. Aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology 5(3): 99-108.
  • Wetzel, J., & J.P. Wourms. 1995. Adaptations for reproduction and development in the skin-brooding ghost pipefishes, Solenostomus. Environmental Biology of Fishes 44: 363-384.
  • Wetzel, J., J.P. Wourms, and J. Friel. 1997. Comparative morphology of cotylephores in Platystacus and Solenostomus: modifications of the integument for egg attachment in skin-brooding fishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 50: 13–25.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Supplier: Leo Shapiro

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Mostly pelagic until they settle on the substrate for breeding (Ref. 48635). Uncommon species found in coastal reefs and weedy areas (Ref. 5463). Monogamous, always in pairs (Ref. 52884). Females carry the eggs in their pelvic fins that are modified to form a brood pouch (Ref. 205). Feed on small crustaceans (Ref. 1602).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to Australia.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Mariana Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Shark Bay (Western Australia) and New Caledonia.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 5; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17 - 22; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 17 - 22; Vertebrae: 32 - 33
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 170 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

17.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5463))
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Description

Inhabits coastal reefs and weedy areas. Always found in pairs. Feeds on small crustaceans (Ref. 1602).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Color variable (from brown to pink or yellow) with small black and white spots; 2 elongate black spots between first 3 dorsal spines (Ref. 4263). Total body plates 27-35. Caudal fin truncate, rounded, or lanceolate. Caudal peduncle short or lost in large females (Ref. 48635). Pelvic fin sexually dimorphic, forming a brood pouch in females (Ref. 9829).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 0 - 25 m (Ref. 37816), usually 0 - 25 m (Ref. 37816)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 28
  Temperature range (°C): 24.801 - 27.278
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.061 - 0.344
  Salinity (PPS): 35.028 - 35.275
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.670 - 5.005
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.178 - 0.227
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.439 - 5.325

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2 - 28

Temperature range (°C): 24.801 - 27.278

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.061 - 0.344

Salinity (PPS): 35.028 - 35.275

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.670 - 5.005

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.178 - 0.227

Silicate (umol/l): 3.439 - 5.325
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 2 - 12m.
From 2 to 12 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. The body of the female is deeper than that of the male. The females brood the eggs. She has extended pelvic fins that are united with the abdomen along the dorsal margin and ventrally to each other by a membrane to form a brood pouch.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Uncommon species (Ref. 5463) found in coastal reefs and weedy areas. Always in pairs. Feeds on small crustaceans (Ref. 1602), small crabs, and fish larvae (Ref. 9137).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Pelvic fins of females are modified as brood pouch for the reception of the eggs (Ref. 205).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solenostomus cyanopterus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data: Solenostomus cyanopterus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGATGATTTTTCTCTACTAATCATAAAGACATTGGCACCCTTTACCTTATCTTTGGTGCATGAGCAGGAATAGTTGGCACGGCTTTA---AGCCTACTGATCCGGGCCGAGCTAAGTCAACCGGGAGCCCTTTTAGGAGAT---GATCAGATCTATAATGTAATCGTAACTGCTCATGCCTTTGTAATAATTTTTTTTATAGTAATACCTATCATGATCGGGGGCTTTGGCAACTGACTTATTCCCTTAATG---ATTGGTGCCCCCGACATAGCTTTCCCCCGTATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTGCCCCCATCTTTTCTGCTTCTCCTCGCATCCTCCGGAGTTGAAGCGGGGGCTGGAACTGGGTGAACTGTATACCCACCCCTAGCCGGGAACCTGGCTCACGCCGGAGCTTCTGTTGATCTA---ACCATCTTTTCACTTCATCTAGCAGGGATCTCTTCTATTCTTGGGGCAATTAACTTTATTACAACAATTATCAATATAAAACCCCCTTCAGTCTCCCAGTACCAAACCCCACTGTTTGTGTGAGCTGTACTGATTACTGCAGTTCTTCTGCTCCTTTCACTACCCGTACTCGCAGCT---GGAATTACCATGCTGCTCACAGATCGGAACCTAAACACGACCTTTTTTGACCCTTCCGGAGGGGGCGACCCCATCCTTTACCAACACCTGTTTTGATTCTTTGGTCACCCCGAAGTCTATATCCTCATTCTCCCAGGCTTTGGAATAATCTCACACATTGTTGCCTATTATGCAGGGAAGAAG---GAACCTTTTGGCTATATAGGCATAGTATGGGCTATGATAGCCATCGGACTACTAGGTTTTATTGTGTGAGCCCACCACATATTCACGGTCGGAATAGATGTAGACACGCGAGCCTACTTTACCTCTGCTACAATAATCATTGCAATCCCGACGGGTGTTAAAGTGTTTAGCTGACTC---GCAACC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Solenostomus cyanopterus

The robust ghost pipefish, Solenostomus cyanopterus, is a species of false pipefishes belonging to the family Solenostomidae.

Contents

Description[edit]

Solenostomus cyanopterus can reach a length of 17 cm (6.7 in)[1] and it is the largest of the ghost pipefishes. The body may be grey, brown, pink, yellow, or bright green, with small black and white dots.[1] This cryptic species looks very similar to a drifting piece of seagrass. The caudal fin may be truncated, rounded, or lanceolated; the caudal peduncle is quite short or absent. The pelvic fin is sexually dimorphic.[1] It is an uncommon species related to pipefishes and seahorses. It can be distinguished by the presence of the pelvic fins, the prominent spiny dorsal fin, and 27-35 star-shaped plates on the skin.

Behavior[edit]

Solenostomus cyanopterus at Sharm el Sheik

These fish float near motionlessly, with their mouths facing downwards, around a background that makes them nearly impossible to see. They feed on tiny crustaceans, sucked inside through their long snouts. They live in open waters except during breeding, when they find a coral reef or muddy bottom, changing color and shape to minimize visibility. Unlike true pipefish, female ghost pipefishes use their enlarged pelvic fins to brood their eggs until they hatch.

Distribution[edit]

This species lives in the Red Sea and in the tropical Indo-Pacific, from the coast of East Africa to Fiji, southern Japan and Australia. [1]

Habitat[edit]

The robust ghost pipefish is mostly pelagic and reef-associated. When it settles on the substrate for breeding, it can be found on coastal reefs and weedy areas, at a depth of 2–25 m (6 ft 7 in–82 ft 0.3 in).[1]

References[edit]

  • ITIS
  • Australian Museum
  • Tim Flannery and Peter Schouten. Amazing Animals: Extraordinary Creatures and the Fantastic Worlds They Inhabit. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2004. Page 116-117.
  • Orr, JW and Fritzsche, RA. 1993. Revision of the Ghost Pipefishes, Family Solenostomidae (Teleostei: Syngnathoidei). Copeia 1993:168-182.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!