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BiologyGenerally frequent inshore sand banks, bars, and spits, and congregate in sandy hollows. At high tide they move in schools across the sand flats and retreat to the slopes of the banks when the tide falls. These whiting are principally marine residents (Ref. 27646, 27012), and can tolerate upper Spencer Gulf waters with salinity as high as 40-50 ppt (Ref. 6390). They may also penetrate to the limit of the brackish water in tidal creeks, where salinity is as low as 1 ppt (Ref. 6335, 27012). Juveniles inhabit warmer water, mangrove-lined creeks and inshore protected environments (Ref. 27012) over mud bottoms and seagrass beds (Ref. 6390). The spawning season commences in September and is completed by January in Shark Bay and slightly later along the coast to the south (Ref. 6390). Oviparous (Ref. 205), and are multiple spawners with asynchronous development (Ref. 27656).