Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Lilium catesbaei var. catesbaei :
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Lilium catesbaei var. longii Fernald:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Lilium catesbaei Walter:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Ala., Fla., Ga., La., Miss., N.C., S.C., Va.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Coastal plain from southeast Virginia to Florida, west to Louisiana.

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Global Range: Coastal plain from southeast Virginia to Florida, west to Louisiana.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Bulbs ovoid, 1.6–2.5 × 1.3–2.4 cm, 0.8–1.6 times taller than long, 2 years’ growth evident, newer bearing prominent basal leaves, older with abscission scars; scales few, loose, unsegmented or 2-segmented, longest 1–1.8 cm; stem roots usually present, often numerous. Stems to 0.9 m. Buds rounded in cross section. Leaves scattered, ascending, distal appressed, 1.8–8.2 × 0.2–1.2 cm, 3.1–10.5 times longer than wide; blade narrowly elliptic, sometimes linear or slightly oblanceolate, margins not undulate, apex acute, acuminate especially in distal leaves; veins and margins ± smooth abaxially. Inflorescences occasionally umbellate, 1(–3)-flowered. Flowers erect, not fragrant; perianth widely campanulate; sepals and petals recurved 2/5–1/2 along length from base, crimson or sometimes pink, distinctly clawed, apex very narrowly acute, nectar guides above claws yellow to pale yellow and spotted maroon or magenta, ± equal; sepals not ridged abaxially, 8.2–12 × 1.2–1.9 cm; petals at proximal widest point much wider than sepals, 7.6–11.1 × 1.8–3.4 cm; stamens moderately exserted; filaments ± parallel to style, barely spreading, diverging 0°–12° from axis, often purple at base; anthers variously colored tan-orange, brown, peachy magenta, or pale greenish, 0.4–1.6 cm; pollen burnt orange or dark tan; pistil 7.6–10.5 cm; ovary 1.4–3.5 cm; style pale green, sometimes darker distally; pedicel 1.8–9.5 cm. Capsules often ridged along valve margins, 2.2–5.3 × 0.8–1.6 cm, 1.7–3.8 times longer than wide. Seeds not counted. 2n = 24.
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Diagnostic Description

Distinguished from other southeastern lilies by alternate rather than whorled leaves and upward-facing flower with clawed tepals.

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Synonym

Lilium catesbaei subsp. asprellum Wherry; L. catesbaei var. longii Fernald
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Ecology

Habitat

Wet pine flatwoods and savannas, especially in pitcher plant (Sarracenia) bogs with Sphagnum; 0--200m.
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Comments: see GHABCOM in PCAG

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Comments: Pine savannas, flatwoods, bogs. (Godfrey & Wooten 1979, Radford et al. 1968)

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General Ecology

Flowers more conspicuously following fire (Abrahamson 1984).

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering late summer--fall (late Jun--Oct) in most of range, sporadically spring and fall in peninsular Florida.
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Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T4 - Apparently Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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Wikipedia

Lilium catesbaei

Lilium catesbaei, sometimes known as Catesby's lily, pine lily,[1] leopard lily, tiger lily, or southern-red lily[2] is a native of Florida and the coastal regions of the American Southeast, where it usually grows in damp areas. It requires hot, wet, acidic soil, conditions that would normally exclude lily species.[3] Producing a single flower, it generally blooms late in the year. The flower is upright with 6 tepals (petals and sepals that look very similar). The tepals are curved backward and are orange toward the tip, yellow and purple-spotted toward the base.[4]

See also[edit]

Deer Prairie Creek Preserve in Florida, notable for Lilium catesbaei

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Justice, William S.; Bell, C. Ritchie; Lindsey, Anne H. (2005). Wild Flowers of North Carolina (2. printing. ed.). Chapel Hill, NC: Univ. of North Carolina Press. p. 35. ISBN 0807855979. 
  2. ^ USDA GRIN entry for Lilium catesbaei
  3. ^ http://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/NorthAmericanLilium
  4. ^ http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=lica4
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Notes

Comments

The pine lily’s flower is the largest of any North American lily and one of the largest among our native monocots. In small plants it dwarfs and sometimes topples the slender stem. Leaves are small and relatively few and the bulb is petite, and thus resource limitation in smaller plants undoubtedly contributes to the wide range of fruit sizes within populations. In other North American members of the genus, small plants produce one or a few capsules, but typically these approach normal size. 

 Lilium catesbaei subsp. asprellum Wherry and L. catesbaei var. longii Fernald have been proposed to account for individuals with leaves concentrated toward the middle of the stem or somewhat wide and lacking basal leaves, respectively. These variants are not emphasized here since both are based primarily on vegetative features that vary greatly in most lilies. Isotypes of var. longii are unremarkable, though with somewhat wide leaves, and the broadly overlapping distribution of this variety with nominate populations (A. E. Radford et al. 1968) strongly suggests that such differences are primarily environmentally induced. Variety longii was described from Virginia, and Fernald’s observation that these northern plants lack basal leaves—which I have not investigated in the field—is unsurprising in those colder climates, and best considered in terms of the normal variation within a fairly wide-ranging species.  Although it is not yet rare, widespread alteration of native longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Miller) and slash pine (P. elliottii Engelmann) savanna, especially conversion to even-age pine plantations, is making steady inroads on populations of this most beautiful lily. It is adapted to frequent fires, and their suppression may contribute to this decline.  Lilium catesbaei is pollinated primarily by the palamedes swallowtail [Papilio palamedes (Drury), family Papilionidae], the only swallowtail that is widely endemic to this lily’s coastal plain habitat. Spicebush swallowtails (P. troilus Linnaeus) visit the pine lily less frequently, and their smaller size suggests that they are less effective pollinators than the larger palamedes.

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