Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This attractive lily is similar to other lilies with orange flowers, including Lilium superbum (Turk's Cap Lily), Lilium michiganense (Michigan Lily), and the introduced Lilium lancifolium (Tiger Lily). Like the flowers of Canada Lily, the flowers of Michigan Lily and Turk's Cap Lily often nod downward. However, the tepal tips of Michigan Lily curve back to the base of the flower, while the tepal tips of Turk's Cap Lily curve back and extend behind the base of the flower. The tepal tips of Canada Lily, in contrast, curve back only a little and remain in front of the base of the flower. The introduced Tiger Lily, in contrast to these native lilies, has dark bulbets in the axils of its leaves along the central stem, and its leaves are alternate (rather than whorled). Other orange-flowered lilies, whether native or introduced, typically have erect flowers. Of these various species, you are most likely to encounter the Michigan Lily in the natural areas of Illinois, although the Tiger Lily has become increasingly common.
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Description

This perennial wildflower is 2-4' tall and unbranched, except near the apex where the flowers occur. The central stem is light green, terete, glabrous, and often glaucous. At intervals along this stem, there are whorls of 3-8 leaves; 1 or 2 alternate leaves may occur along the upper portion of the stem. These leaves are up to 6" long and 1" across, narrowly ovate, smooth along the margins, and sessile. The upper surface of each leaf is medium to dark green and glabrous, while the lower surface is a lighter shade of green with finely short-pubescent hairs along the veins (a 10x hand lens may be necessary to see these minute hairs). The veins of the leaves are parallel. The upper stem terminates in 1-5 (rarely up to 20) yellow-orange to red-orange flowers on long stalks. Each of these stalks nods downward at its apex. Some stalks may have 1 or 2 leafy bracts that resemble the leaves, except they are smaller in size. Each trumpet-shaped flower is about 2½" long and across, consisting of 6 tepals, 6 stamens with red anthers, and a central pistil. The throat of the flower becomes yellow and it has purple dots. The tips of the tepals curve backward, but they don't extend to the base of the flower. The anthers and style of each flower are exerted only slightly from the corolla (the 6 tepals). The blooming period occurs from late spring to mid-summer and lasts about 3 weeks. There is no noticeable floral scent. Each fertile flower is replaced by an oblongoid seed capsule that is about 2" long. Each seed capsule is divided into 3 cells; within each cell, there is a stack of large flattened seeds. The root system consists of a scaly corm with fibrous roots. This wildflower reproduces by seed or from offsets of the corms. Cultivation
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Canada Lily has not been found in Illinois as either a native plant or an escaped cultivated plant. However, it occurs as a native plant in Indiana, thus it is possible that this species may establish itself in Illinois in the future. In Indiana and other eastern states, Canada Lily is found in open woodlands, wooded slopes, savannas, woodland openings, and moist meadows. Like other Lilium spp. (lilies), it is cultivated in gardens because of the large showy flowers.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Found in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and southeastern Quebec. Also in New England, New York east to the Hudson River, New Jersey, southeastern Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware and W. Virginia.

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N.B., N.S., Ont., Que.; Ala., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Bulbs usually yellowish, rhizomatous, unbranched, 1.8–4.5 × 4.2–11.7 cm, 0.3–0.8 times taller than long, 2(–3) years’ growth evident as annual bulbs, scaleless sections between these 0.7–5.3 cm; scales 1–2-segmented, longest 0.9–2.8 cm; stem roots present, often very many. Stems to 1.8 m. Buds rounded in cross section. Leaves in 6–10 whorls or partial whorls, 3–12 leaves per whorl, ± horizontal, occasionally slightly ascending, drooping at tips, 4–17.3 × 1–3.6 cm, 2.5–10 times longer than wide; blade narrowly elliptic, occasionally elliptic or slightly lanceolate, margins not undulate, apex acute, often acuminate in distal leaves; principal veins impressed adaxially, veins and margins very noticeably roughened abaxially with small ± deltoid epidermal spicules. Inflorescences racemose, 1–17-flowered. Flowers pendent, not fragrant; perianth ± campanulate; sepals and petals somewhat recurved 1/2–3/4 along length from base, adaxial surface dirty yellow proximally and giving way to red dusting on tips, red or pale red abaxially, or orange adaxially and yellow-orange abaxially, or both surfaces solid yellow, spotted maroon, not distinctly clawed; sepals not ridged abaxially, 5.4–8.5 × 1.2–1.7 cm; petals 5.3–8 × 1.2–2 cm; stamens barely exserted; filaments ± parallel to style, barely spreading, diverging only 4°–6° from axis, ± same color as sepals and petals; anthers dull magenta or darker, 0.6–1.3 cm; pollen rust, sometimes light brown, rust-, tan-, or orange-brown; pistil 4.2–6.4 cm; ovary 1.5–2.8 cm; style ± same color as sepals and petals; pedicel 5–23.5 cm. Capsules 3–5.2 × 1.5–2.3 cm, 1.5–2.5 times longer than wide. Seeds not counted. 2n = 24.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Lilium canadense var. coccineum Pursh; L. canadense subsp. editorum (Fernald) Wherry; L. canadense var. editorum Fernald; L. canadense var. flavum Pursh; L. canadense var. rubrum hort. ex T. Moore
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Canada Lily has not been found in Illinois as either a native plant or an escaped cultivated plant. However, it occurs as a native plant in Indiana, thus it is possible that this species may establish itself in Illinois in the future. In Indiana and other eastern states, Canada Lily is found in open woodlands, wooded slopes, savannas, woodland openings, and moist meadows. Like other Lilium spp. (lilies), it is cultivated in gardens because of the large showy flowers.
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Comments: Moist sunny areas with acidic soils: swamps, bogs, roadside ditches, moist fields, edges of moist woods.

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Wet meadows, moist rich woods especially edges, streamsides and river alluvia, bogs, marshes, swamps, along wet roadsides and railroads; 0--1000(--1400)m.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

The floral nectar attracts large butterflies, particularly Speyeria cybele (Great Spangled Fritillary) and various Swallowtail butterflies. Halictid bees (e.g., Lasioglossum spp.) collect pollen from the flowers, but they are ineffective at cross-pollination because of their small size. The caterpillars of Papaipema nebris (Common Borer Moth), Papaipema cataphracta (Burdock Borer Moth), and Papaipema cerina (Golden Borer Moth) bore through the stems of native Lilium spp. (lilies). The last of these three species is oligophagous (specialist feeder). Other insects that feed on native lilies include Acrolepiopsis incertella (Carrion Flower Moth; caterpillars bore into corms or stems of lilies), Merodon equestris (Narcissus Bulb Fly; maggots feed on corms), and the introduced Lilioceris lilii (Lily Leaf Beetle; feeds on leaves). The Lily Leaf Beetle occurs in some northeastern states, but it has not been observed in Illinois thus far. Deer, rabbits, and other mammalian herbivores readily browse on the foliage of native Lilies, while voles and chipmunks eat the corms. Photographic Location
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Flower-Visiting Insects of Canada Lily in Illinois

Lilium canadense (Canada Lily)
(Halictid bees collect pollen and are non-pollinating; butterflies suck nectar; observations are from Graenicher)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Lasioglossum forbesii cp np (Gr), Lasioglossum versatus cp np (Gr)

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Speyeria cybele sn (Gr)

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering summer (Jun--early Aug).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lilium canadense

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lilium canadense

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Rank provided by NCHP during data exchange Apr/1994.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T4 - Apparently Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Common in PA and New England.

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Threats

Comments: Highly threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, sedimentation,and forest management practices; succession and over-harvest are low-level threats (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

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Comments: Highly threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, sedimentation,and forest management practices; succession and over-harvest are low-level threats (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

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Wikipedia

Lilium canadense

Canada Lily in Maine
Red Canada Lily

Lilium canadense, commonly called either the Canada Lily, Wild Yellow-Lily, or the Meadow Lily, is a native of eastern North America. Flowers emerge in June, and are nodding, yellow, orange or red, with spots. The plant has become less common in urban and suburban areas due to heavy browsing by the white-tailed deer

• Habitat: moist meadows, wood margins • Height: 2-5 feet • Flower size: 2-3 inches wide • Flower color: yellow, orange, or red • Flowering time: June to July • Origin: native

Found in N.B., N.S., Ont., Que.; Ala., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va. [2]

The flower buds and roots were once gathered and eaten by North American Indians. [3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A selection of Hexandrian plants, belonging to the natural orders Amaryllidae and Liliacae from Zeichnungen by Mrs. Edward Bury, Liverpool; painted by R. Havell, circa 1870
  2. ^ Distribution Map
  3. ^ borealforest.org


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Notes

Comments

Lilium canadense. Flower color varies widely, and various color forms—usually yellow and orange—are found within single populations in Massachusetts and elsewhere. As interpreted by Adams and Dress, the distributions of the proposed varieties overlap widely, and morphological evidence also offers little support. Leaves 2–10 times longer than wide occur within a sample of plants from Ohio and Alabama that is clearly referable to subsp. editorum in the sense of Adams and Dress, and in these plants the floral tube is wider than that of Massachusetts plants assignable to the nominate variety. Petal widths (fresh material) are 1.2–2 cm. In short, the increasingly refined attempts of the last 60 years to suitably characterize variation in this species suggest that is quite difficult or impossible to do so.  Though no specimens were seen, a report of Lilium canadense from Ashley County in extreme southeastern Arkansas is quite likely to represent L. superbum.  Field observations across the range of the species indicate that the Canada lily is pollinated primarily by ruby-throated hummingbirds [Archilochus colubris (Linnaeus), family Trochilidae]. Native Americans used Lilium canadense medicinally to treat irregular menstruation, stomach disorders, rheumatism, and snake bites. The Cherokee prepared a decoction of boiled rhizomes to fatten children (D. E. Moerman 1986).
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Distinct species. Two subspecies: L. canadense ssp. canadense and L. canadense ssp. editorium. Also hybridizes with L. michiganense where their ranges overlap. May have introgressed with L. grayi in the Appalachians.

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