The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • "Phthiraptera." Wikipedia. 2013. .
  • Bess, Emilie, Vince Smith, Charles Lienhard, and Kevin P. Johnson (2006) Psocodea. Parasitic Lice (=Phthiraptera), Book Lice, and Bark Lice. Version 08 October 2006 (under construction). in The Tree of Life Web Project,
  • Borror, Donald, Charles Triplehorn, and Norman Johnson. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. 6th ed. Saunders College Publishing, 1989. 275-283. Print.
  • Capinera, John. "Chewing and Sucking Lice (Phthiraptera)." Encyclopedia of Entomology. 4. 2008.
  • Johnson, K. P., Yoshizawa, K. and V. S. Smith (2004) Multiple origins of parasitism in lice. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 271: 1771-1776.
  • Preston-Mafham, Rod, and Ken Preston-Mafham. "Lice."Encyclopedia of Insects and Spiders. San Diego: 2005.
  • Price RD, Hellenthal RA, Palma RL, Johnson KP, Clayton DH. The Chewing Lice: World Checklist and Biological Overview. Champaign-Urbana, Illinois: Illinois Natural History Survey, 2003.
  • Shuker, KPN. 2001. The Hidden Powers of Animals: Uncovering the Secrets of Nature. London: Marshall Editions Ltd. 240 p.
  • Smith, Vince and Rod Page. 1997. Phthiraptera. Parasitic lice. Version 07 March 1997 (under construction). in The Tree of Life Web Project,
  • WoRMS (2014). Phthiraptera. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Wootton, A. 1984. Insects of the World. Blandford. 224 p.
  • Yoshizawa, K. and K. P. Johnson (2006). Morphology of male genitalia in lice and their relatives and phylogenetic implications. Systematic Entomology 31: 350-361.


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