Overview

Brief Summary

Overview

Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are small, wingless insects, permanently parasitic on mammals and birds. The order is one of approximately thirty major groups of insects, and is divided into four suborders, three of which (the Amblycera, Ischnocera, and Rhynchophthirina) are known as chewing or biting lice, and the fourth (the Anoplura) as sucking lice. Amblycera and Ischnocera are found on both mammals and birds where as species of Rhynchophthirina and Anoplura are confined to mammals. In total there are approximately 5,000 known species, of which just under 70% are recorded from a single host species.

  • Price RD, Hellenthal RA, Palma RL, Johnson KP, Clayton DH. The Chewing Lice: World Checklist and Biological Overview. Champaign-Urbana, Illinois: Illinois Natural History Survey, 2003.
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Phthiraptera Overview

In the Phthiraptera, louse is used for the singular and lice are used for the plural.  “There are more than 3, 000 known species of lice and…more remain undescribed” (Smith and Page, 1997).  They are usually about 0.5-6 millimeters in length.  They require a host to survive and would not last long without one.  Lice lack wings and mostly feed on skin or blood.  Depending on the species, they feed by sucking or chewing.  They can be found on “every avian and mammalian order except for monotremes (the platypus and echidnas), bats, whales, dolphins, porpoises, and pangolins” (Wikipedia, 2013).  For mammals, the lice will attach their eggs with saliva.  For birds, the lice will lay their eggs in spots that the birds cannot reach with their beaks.  Lice tend to be more aggregated when living on bird species.  They undergo incomplete metamorphosis.  Within a month, the nymphs will molt three times before becoming an adult.

  • "Phthiraptera." Wikipedia. 2013. .
  • Borror, Donald, Charles Triplehorn, and Norman Johnson. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. 6th ed. Saunders College Publishing, 1989. 275-283. Print.
  • Capinera, John. "Chewing and Sucking Lice (Phthiraptera)." Encyclopedia of Entomology. 4. 2008.
  • Preston-Mafham, Rod, and Ken Preston-Mafham. "Lice."Encyclopedia of Insects and Spiders. San Diego: 2005.
  • Smith, Vince and Rod Page. 1997. Phthiraptera. Parasitic lice. Version 07 March 1997 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Phthiraptera/8237/1997.03.07 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
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Comprehensive Description

Wingless, permanent obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Highly host specific. Body dorso-ventrally flattened, adults 0.35 – 11 mm long. Eyes variable, antennae 3-5 segmented, mouthparts mandibulate or highly modified for sucking and/or piercing. Pronotum usually free. Meso- and metanotum complete or partially fused. Legs usually short/stout bearing single or paired pretarsal claws. Abdomen comprising 8-11 visible segments variably sclerotized, cerci absent. Colouration usually cryptic matching host pelage or plumage. Three nymphal instars.

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Distribution

As permanent obligate ectoparasites, louse distribution essentially mirrors that of the mammal and bird species they parasitize. Consequently, it is the diversity of these hosts rather than any geographic or ecological correlate that is the best predictor of louse diversity. Whilst Greenland is home to just 13 species of terrestrial/semi-terrestrial mammal, the countries rich avifauna, comprising an unusual mix of Arctic species combined with European and North American vagrants provides a varied habitat for the many species of lice that infest these birds.

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Physical Description

Morphology

ADULTS. Head dorso-ventrally compressed and more-or-less prognathous with reduced or greatly modified mouthparts. Annular antennae short, small, or rarely absent, comprising a scape, pedicel, and three terminal flagellomeres, the latter two of which bear sensilla. Terminal flagellomeres may be fused and are often sexually dimorphic. Variable compound eyes (may be absent) and no ocelli. Tentorium reduced or absent. Clypeus variably extended displacing the labrum to the ventral surface. This forms a conspicuous hyaline pad-like protrusion (the pulvinus) which sits anterior to the mandibular mouthparts of most chewing lice (i.e. Amblycera, Ischnocera and Rhynchophthirina) but is absent in sucking lice (Anoplura). When present the pulvinus and mandibles assist in anchoring the louse to its host. Maxillae greatly reduced in chewing lice but highly modified as stylet guides in sucking lice. Labium and hypopharynx distinct in Amblycera and Ischnocera but highly modified in Rhynchophthirina (not present in Greenland) and Anoplura. Pronotum reduced and usually distinct except in Anoplura. Meso- and metanotum usually indivisibly fused except in some Amblycera. Leg articulations with the thorax, pleuro- (i.e. lateral) or sternocoxal (i.e. ventral), usually both. Legs variously modified for locomotion and attachment to host. Tarsus subdivided into two tarsomeres that are variably fused. Pretarsus bears two claws for lice parasitizing birds, or one claw for lice parasitizing mammals (no exceptions in Greenland). Abdomen comprises eleven segments, although one or more are always partly or wholly suppressed. Typically nine segments are visible, the first comprising segment I and II (true segment number indicated by Roman numerals) and the ninth comprising fused segments IX, X and XI. Tergal, sternal and tergopleural sclerotized plates are variably distributed over the abdomen. Six abdominal spiracles are normally borne from segments III-VIII, although reduction has occurred in many mammal infesting species – usually sequentially from segment VIII. The posterior margin of the sternum VII forms the ventral margin of the vulva. Gonapophyses may be present on segment VIII and a female genital lobe of uncertain homology on segment IX. The male genital opening is posterior to sternum IX. Male external genitalia of Phthiraptera are highly variable. 

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Evolution and Systematics

Systematics or Phylogenetics

Recent mophological (Yoshizawa & Johnson 2006) and molecular evidence (Johnson et al. 2004) has shown that the parasitic lice (Phthiraptera) evolved from within the psocopteran suborder Troctomorpha. In modern systematics, Psocoptera and Phthiraptera are therefore treated together in the order Psocodea (Bess et al. 2006).

  • Bess, Emilie, Vince Smith, Charles Lienhard, and Kevin P. Johnson (2006) Psocodea. Parasitic Lice (=Phthiraptera), Book Lice, and Bark Lice. Version 08 October 2006 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Psocodea/8235/2006.10.08 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
  • Johnson, K. P., Yoshizawa, K. and V. S. Smith (2004) Multiple origins of parasitism in lice. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 271: 1771-1776.
  • Yoshizawa, K. and K. P. Johnson (2006). Morphology of male genitalia in lice and their relatives and phylogenetic implications. Systematic Entomology 31: 350-361.
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Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Design features aid efficient attachment: lice
 

Lice adhere to their hosts' skin using strong claws and flat bodies.

         
  "Lice are much more sedentary, clutching onto their host's skin with strong gripping claws. They have flattened bodies that rebuff attempts by the host to dislodge them." (Shuker 2001:165)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Shuker, KPN. 2001. The Hidden Powers of Animals: Uncovering the Secrets of Nature. London: Marshall Editions Ltd. 240 p.
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Functional adaptation

Eggs attached securely to hairs: body lice
 

The eggs of body lice are attached to the hairs of their host with a cement-like substance.

   
  "Eggs of body lice, commonly called 'nits', are attached to the body hairs of the host by a cement-like substance." (Wootton 1984:87)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Wootton, A. 1984. Insects of the World. Blandford. 224 p.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:2234
Specimens with Sequences:2023
Specimens with Barcodes:1373
Species:114
Species With Barcodes:106
Public Records:1746
Public Species:99
Public BINs:100
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Barcode data

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