Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Santa Rosa, Florida; Liberty County, Florida. Clewell (1985) does not recognize this species but states that it occurs in a swamp in Walton County.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Bulb nonrhizomatous, broadly ovoid, 4–7(–9) × 4.5–6.5(–8) cm; basal plate 1–3 cm; neck 4–6 cm; tunic grayish brown. Leaves deciduous, 3–9, erect, (2–)3–6.7 dm × (0.8–)1.5–3.2 cm, coriaceous; blade bluish green to deep green, narrowly liguliform, broadly channeled, margins hyaline, apex acute, glaucous to slightly glaucous, or not glaucous. Scape (3.5–)4.5–7.5 dm, suborbiculate, glaucous; scape bracts 2, not enclosing flower buds, 4.5–5.5 × 1–1.5 cm; subtending floral bracts 3.8–6.1 cm × 5–10 mm. Flowers 2(–3 rarely), opening sequentially, mildly fragrant; perianth tube green, robust, 6–10(–12) cm; tepals slightly ascending to long-spreading, greenish white, 8.8–16 cm × 4.5–9.5(–11) mm; corona white with faint green proximal eye, funnelform, gradually spreading in time, shortly tubulose proximally, 3–4 × 5–6 cm, margins between free portions of filaments irregularly dentate; free portions of filaments inserted on flat sinal base, slightly incurved, white, 2.8–4.5 cm; anthers 1.5–2.5 cm, pollen yellow; ovary oblong to pyriform, 1.5–3 cm × 10 mm, ovules 4–8 per locule; style green in distal 1/2, fading to white proximally, (13–)16–20 cm. Capsules subglobose, shortly beaked, 3.5–4.5 × 3–4 cm. Seeds obovoid, 1.5–2.2 × 1.2–1.5 cm. 2n = 38.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Within the narrow ecotone between dome swamps and mesic/wet flatwoods or within the ecotone between dome swamps and wet prairies. (Based on Kral 1983.)

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G2 - Imperiled

Reasons: A Florida endemic with a limited distribution due to specialized habitat requirements. The Florida Natural Areas Inventory's database currently contains 25 occurrence records, scattered in the southcentral portion of the Florida panhandle. Habitat destruction from silvicultural activities, fire suppression, and over-collection threaten this species.

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Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Comments: Vulnerable to collection, development, silviculture.

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Threats

Comments: Collecting, silviculture, development, wetland drainage

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Management

Biological Research Needs: Need to determine the validity of this species. Clewell (1985) and Godfrey and Wooten (1979) do not recognize this species. Also need more information on reproductive biology and on associated species.

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Notes

Comments

Hymenocallis henryae is being considered for federal protection. It has received the highest endangerment ranking by the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (Gary Knight, FNAI Director, pers. comm.) and is known only from scattered localities in Liberty, Gulf, Bay, and Walton counties. It is readily distinguished in the field by consistently having two flowers per plant and long, pale green tepals radiating from the base of a white, funnelform staminal corona. The erect, liguliform leaves vary in size and glaucousness over its range (G. L. Smith and J. N. Henry 1999). 

 Hymenocallis henryae was designated “H. viridiflora” by J. K. Small (1933). This name is listed as number 10 in Small’s key, but as a result of a clerical error (C. V. Morton 1935), species number 10 was described by Small under the name H. rotatum Le Conte. Even if Small had applied the name H. viridiflora to the description, as he evidently had intended, that name still would be invalid, since it would have been a later homonym of H. viridiflora (Ruiz & Pavón) R. W. Wallace from Peru.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Its distinctiveness as a good species was established by Gerald Smith, a Hymenocallis expert; also recognized as a good species by Kartesz (1999 Floristic Synthesis). Clewell (1985) and Godfrey and Wooten (1979) do not recognize this species. Kartesz (letter to Larry Morse, 25Nov99) notes that "this genus is particularly messy ... H. henryae perhaps should be maintained, at least for the time being."

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