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Overview

Brief Summary

History in the United States

Common or orange daylily was introduced into the United States in the late 19th century as an ornamental. It is a very popular plant favored by homeowners and landscape designers for its showy flowers, hardiness and ability to spread. There are now over 40,000 registered cultivars, many of which likely are or have the potential to become invasive and should be watched. For example, yellow daylily (H. lilioasphodelus), has also been identified as invasive in scattered locations in the eastern U.S. Daylily buds and flowers are edible and have a sweet-spicy or peppery flavor.

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Comprehensive Description

Description

This introduced perennial plant consists of a rosette of basal leaves and flowering stalks about 3-6' tall. The basal leaves are linear with parallel venation and hairless, tapering gradually to a sword-like point. They have a tendency to bend down and outward around the middle, and are somewhat floppy in appearance. From the center of the rosette, there develops one or more stout flowering stalks that are held erect and are usually much taller than the leaves. Each stalk is hairless and largely naked, except for a few green bracts along its length. It is largely unbranched, except near the apex, where there is a panicle consisting of a few small clusters of flowers.  The flowers are orange and quite large, spanning individually about 3½" across. They are held semi-erect or horizontally on the their stalks, rather than hanging downward. Each flower consists of 6 orange tepals (3 petals and 3 sepals that are similar in appearance) that are united at the base, but spread outward and backward toward their tips. The 3 inner tepals are somewhat broader than the 3 outer tepals. The margins of each tepal are rolled. The throat of the flower is yellow, around which there is a band of red, while the remainder of the flower is some shade of orange. Exerted from its center, there are 6 long stamens and a single style. The buds of the flowers are green to greenish orange, oblong, and up to 3" long. The blooming period occurs during mid-summer and lasts about a month. Each flower lasts only a single day, hence the common name. The seed capsules, if any are produced, are 3-celled and contain rows of black seeds. However, these seeds are infertile because the Orange Day Lily is a sterile hybrid. The root system consists of fleshy fibrous roots and rhizomes. This plant often forms vegetative clumps of plants that exclude other species.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Comments

The Orange Day Lily is considered old-fashioned, and it is now rarely offered by the horticulture industry. In its place are new hybrid Day Lilies that vary in the height of their foliage, color of their flowers, and length of their blooming period. The Orange Day Lily has been in cultivation for a long time, and it often outlasts the buildings that surround it and their inhabitants. In addition to being long-lived and persistent, this hybrid species is able to naturalize in the wild because the foliage is tall enough to compete for sunlight with other species of plants. The only other species of Day Lily that one may encounter in the wild, Hemerocallis lilio-asphodelus (Yellow Day Lily), has a similar appearance, except that its flowers are yellow. The Lilium spp. (true Lilies) superficially resemble the Day Lilies, except that they have corms rather than fleshy roots, flowering stalks with true leaves, and flowers that last longer than a single day.
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Distribution

Distribution and Habitat in the United States

Common daylily occurs in every state in the eastern U.S. and in scattered locations west to Oregon. Infestations often occur near old homesites from which they’ve escaped from plantings.

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Origin

Asia

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus var. fulvus L.:
Hungary (Europe)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hemerocallis fulva var. kwanso Regel:
Japan (Asia)
South Korea (Asia)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L.:
Canada (North America)
China (Asia)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
India (Asia)
Japan (Asia)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
Russian Federation (Asia)
South Korea (Asia)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea, Russia].
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introduced; N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis.; e Asia (China, Japan); naturalized Eurasia; expected elsewhere.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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S. Europe, India, China, Japan. Cultivated throughout India and possibly escaped from cultivation in Nepal.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description and Biology

  • Plant: bulbous perennial, 2-4 ft. tall with round stems.
  • Leaves: long, linear, strap-like, bright-green, 1-3 ft. (0.3-1 m) long and curve toward the ground.
  • Flowers, fruits and seeds: flowers are large, showy, orange, usually with some striping; occur in clusters of 5-9 at the tip of the stalk; flowers in a cluster open one at a time, each for one day only; summer.
  • Spreads: by growth from thick, tuberous roots from which new plants are produced; seed; people tossing away whole pulled plants and by farm equipment or other machinery in fields.
  • Look-alikes: native lilies like Canada lily (Lilium canadense), wood lily (Lilium philadelphicum) and Turk’s cap lily (Lilium superbum), and non-native lilyturf (Liriope spicata).

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Elevation Range

2400-3600 m
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Description

Plants 40--150 cm tall, usually deciduous in winter. Roots fleshy, with globose-ellipsoid, swollen, tuberous part near tip; stolons sometimes to 30 cm. Leaves linear, 50--90 × 1--2.8 cm, apex acute. Scape erect, hollow; sterile bracts present. Helicoidal cymes double, 2--5(--10)-flowered; bracts scalelike or lanceolate. Pedicel ca. 5 mm. Flowers unscented, strictly day opening, opening in morning and closing in evening of same day. Perianth single, occasionally double (stamens petaloid), orange to reddish orange; tube 2--4 cm; segments spreading, with a purple or reddish orange patch, 5--12 × 1--3 cm, margin sometimes crinkly-undulate, inner segments wider than outer ones. Filaments 4--5 cm; anthers purplish black, 7--8 mm. Capsule ellipsoid, 2--2.5 × 1.2--1.5 cm. Fl. Jun--Nov. 2 n = 22, 33.
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Description

Plants 7–15 dm; main roots fleshy. Leaf blade yellowish green, 7–10 dm × (1–)2.5–3 cm. Scape branched, 10–20-flowered, taller than foliage. Flowers diurnal, not fragrant; perianth tube, widely funnelform, 2–3 cm; tepals yellow basally with darker tawny orange zones and stripes, veins reticulate; outer tepals 7–8 × 1.8–2.2 cm, margins smooth; inner tepals 7.5–8.5 cm × 3–3.5 cm, margins wavy; filaments 4.5–6.5 cm; anthers 5–7 mm; ovary 8–10 mm; style white to pale orange, 9–10 cm; pedicel 3–6 mm. Capsules not or rarely developing. Seeds rarely produced. 2n = 33.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus Linnaeus var. fulvus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 324. 1753
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Ecology

Habitat

Roadsides, waste places, homesteads, open forests, stream banks; 0--1000m.
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Forests, thickets, grasslands, streamsides; 300--2500 m.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

In North America, the flowers are successfully pollinated by neither insects nor hummingbirds. Some small bees or flower flies may collect or feed on the pollen from the anthers. Rabbits and White-Tailed Deer crop the young tender leaves during the spring when little else is available. The tender young foliage, buds, and flowers are non-toxic and edible to humans. The waxy mature foliage is less palatable and usually left alone by wildlife. Photographic Location
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering late spring--early summer.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hemerocallis fulva

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNA - Not Applicable

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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Management

Prevention and Control

Do not plant daylilies known to have weedy habits. Plants can be dug up using a shovel to loosen the soil so that the entire root system with tubers can be removed. Otherwise, re-sprouting will likely occur. Herbicides like glyphosate with systemic action are also effective.

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These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, fertile loamy soil, and mesic conditions. This species is very easy to grow and gradually spreads. It has few problems with pests and foliar disease. Range & Habitat
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Risks

Ecological Threat in the United States

Daylilies established in natural areas pose a threat to native plants in field, meadows, floodplains, moist woods and forest edges. Once established, daylily multiplies and spreads to form dense patches that displace native plants. The thick tubers make it a challenge to control.

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Wikipedia

Hemerocallis fulva

Hemerocallis fulva is a species of Hemerocallis, native to Asia from the Caucasus east through the Himalaya to China, Japan, Korea, and southeastern Russia.[1][2][3]

Contents

Common names

Orange Daylily, Tawny Daylily, Tiger Daylily, Ditch Daylily.

Growth

It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing from a fleshy rhizome with stems 40–150 cm tall. The leaves are linear, 50–90 cm long and 1–2.8 cm broad. The flowers are 5–12 cm across, orange-red, with a pale central line; they are produced from early summer to late autumn on spikes of 10–20, with the individual flowers opening successively, each one only lasting one day. The fruit is a three-valved capsule 2–2.5 cm long and 1.2–1.5 cm broad which splits open at maturity to release the seeds.[1][3]

Cultivars

Several cultivars are known, including 'Kwanzo', where the stamens are modified into additional petals.[1] It reproduces only by stolons and division. The species H. fulva is diploid, as nearly all daylilies were until tetraploid hybrids began to be produced for their sturdiness in the 1960s.[citation needed]

Species characteristics

In the United States and Canada daylilies have become an Invasive species.[4] The most common species in these areas are the Hemerocallis fulva and Hemerocallis fulva longituba.

Uses

Lily flowers — dried or fresh — are used in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese cooking, and are known as golden needles.[5].


References

  1. ^ a b c Flora of China: Hemerocallis fulva
  2. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Hemerocallis fulva
  3. ^ a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  4. ^ USDA Plants Profile for Hemerocallis fulva (orange daylily)
  5. ^ Cooking with Lily Flower or Golden Needles
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Notes

Comments

Four varieties may be recognized in China. The status of Hemerocallis fulva var. oppositibracteata H. Kong & Ching J. Wang (Guihaia 16: 303. 1996), described from Gansu, is uncertain. It supposedly differs in having narrower leaves 5--8 mm wide, subopposite sterile bracts, narrower perianth segments (outer ones 0.6--1 cm wide), and obovoid capsules.
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Comments

Following an earlier European introduction from Asia, Hemerocallis fulva was brought to North America in the seventeenth century. This commonly cultivated daylily, the wild type, is distinguished as cultivar ‘Europa’ Stout and is a self-sterile triploid producing no seed. Essentially, it is a large, complex clone. Plants persist from cultivation or have arisen from root or rhizome fragments, which are capable of plant regeneration. Cultivar ‘Kwanso’ Regel, another ancient garden selection, persists in many areas along with the wild type and has fully doubled flowers. In eastern Asia, both diploids and triploids occur in the H. fulva complex and have been the basis for extensive breeding and tetraploid cultivar selection (A. B. Stout 1934).
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Popular ornamental with over 40,000 cultivars (Swearingen et al. 2002).

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