Overview

Comprehensive Description

Sardinella aurita ZBK Valenciennes, 1847

Mediterranean Sea : 4000-74 (6 spc.), May 1977 , Antalya-Anamur , Nasuh Dagli ; 4000-762 (3 spc.), February 2004 , Iskenderun Bay , trawl , C. Dalyan . Aegean Sea : 4000-707 (1 spc.), January 2001 , Bozcaada Island , trammel net , 30 m, L. Eryilmaz . Istanbul Fish Market : 4000-64 (8 spc.), 12.04.1986 ; 4000-57 (1 spa), 12.04.1986 .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 34-34, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Biology

Schools in coastal waters from inshore to edge of shelf. Prefers clear saline water with a minimum temperature below 24°C. Juveniles tend to stay in nursery areas, but on maturity rejoin adult stocks offshore. Strongly migratory, often rising to surface at night and dispersing. Feeds mainly on zooplankton, especially copepods. Juveniles take phytoplankton (Ref. 27121). Breeds perhaps throughout the year, but with distinct peaks. In some areas there are two main spawning periods. Marketed fresh or canned (Ref. 188). Trematode found in intestinal tract (Ref. 37032).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Distribution

Western Atlantic: Cape Cod, USA to Argentina. Bahamas, Antilles, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean coast
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Eastern Atlantic: Gibraltar to Saldanha Bay, South Africa. Also known from the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Western Atlantic: Cape Cod, USA to Argentina. Bahamas, Antilles, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean coast (Ref. 26938).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Western and eastern Atlantic, including Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 21; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 12 - 23
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Size

Maximum size: 310 mm TL
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Max. size

31.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3259)); max. published weight: 229 g (Ref. 5217); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 839)
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Diagnostic Description

Usually sub-cylindrical, but sometimes a little compressed; belly rather rounded but scutes apparent. Lower gill rakers fine and numerous, more than 80 (162 to 248 in West African specimens of 23 to 28 cm SL); anterior gill rakers on lower limbs of second and third gill arches lying more or less flat (strongly curled in S. brasiliensis). The pelvic fin ray count of 8 distinguishes it from all other species of Sardinella, Harengula, Opisthonema, Herklotsichthys and Amblygaster that occur with it. Resembles Clupea but has two fleshy outgrowths along outer margin of gill opening and numerous fine fronto-parietal striae on top of head. Flanks silvery with a faint golden mid-lateral line; a faint golden spot behind gill opening; black spot at hind border of gill cover (Ref. 188). Back bluish gray, sometimes greenish. Sides silvery to brassy, without spots or streaks. Body very slender. Scales deciduous (Ref. 7251).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Type Information

Type for Sardinella aurita
Catalog Number: USNM 74086
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Locality: Bermuda, Atlantic
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 350 m (Ref. 5286)
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Depth range based on 980 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 502 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 246
  Temperature range (°C): 9.635 - 27.514
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.174 - 16.740
  Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 37.958
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.350 - 6.494
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.088 - 1.218
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 8.021

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 246

Temperature range (°C): 9.635 - 27.514

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.174 - 16.740

Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 37.958

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.350 - 6.494

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.088 - 1.218

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 8.021
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 350m.
Recorded at 350 meters.

Habitat: pelagic. Schools in coastal waters from inshore to edge of shelf. Prefers clear saline water with a minimum temperature below 24°C. Strongly migratory, often rising to surface at night and dispersing. Feeds mainly on zooplankton, especially copepods. Breeds perhaps throughout the year, but with distinct peaks. In some areas there are two main spawning periods. Juveniles tend to stay in nursery areas, but on maturity rejoin adult stocks offshore. Marketed fresh or canned.
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits coral reefs (Ref. 58534). Prefers clear saline water with a minimum temperature below 24° C. Occurs from inshore and near surface to edge of shelf and down to 350 m (West Africa), or perhaps even deeper, often rising to surface at night and dispersing. The juveniles tend to stay in nursery areas (main nurseries off Mauritania and Sénégal/Gambia for the West African region), but on maturity rejoin adult stocks in the colder offshore waters (Ref. 188).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

The breeding pattern is extremely complex, with two principal spawning periods in some areas (linked with upwelling regimes off west Africa).
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=188&speccode=24 External link.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sardinella aurita

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

GCAGGGATGGTCGGAACCGCCCTA---AGTCTACTAATTCGGGCAGAATTAAGCCAGCCCGGAGCACTTCTTGGAGAC---GATCAAATCTACAATGTTATCGTCACCGCACACGCTTTCGTGATGATTTTCTTCATAGTAATGCCAATCCTGATCGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTTGTCCCTCTTATG---ATCGGGGCCCCAGACATGGCATTCCCTCGAATGAACAACATGAGCTTCTGACTCCTACCTCCCTCTTTCCTTCTTCTCCTGGCCTCCTCTGGGGTAGAAGCTGGGGCGGGAACCGGGTGAACAGTCTACCCGCCCTTAGCAGGTAACCTGGCCCACGCCGGAGCATCAGTCGACTTA---ACGATTTTCTCTCTTCACTTAGCGGGTATTTCATCAATTCTTGGGGCCATTAACTTCATCACCACAATCATTAACATGAAACCCCCTGCAATTTCGCAGTATCAAACCCCACTCTTCGTCTGAGCCGTTCTTGTAACTGCTGTTCTTCTCCTTCTCTCTCTCCCAGTCCTAGCTGCC---GGGATTACTATGCTTCTTACTGATCGAAATCTCAACACAACATTCTTCGACCCAGCA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sardinella aurita

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 23
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; bait: usually; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=4931&speccode=228 External link.
  • Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendrickx, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez 1992 Fichas FAO de identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía de campo de las especies comerciales marinas y de aquas salobres de la costa septentrional de Sur América. FAO, Rome. 513 p. Preparado con el financiamento de la Comisión de Comunidades Europeas y de NORAD. (Ref. 5217)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5217&speccode=7 External link.
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Wikipedia

Round sardinella

Round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Sardinella. It is found in both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. [1]

Sardinella aurita went through a large boom in catch population around 1990. However, its numbers have been very stable through the last several years. They averaged 1.3 tonnes per trip over the last four years.[2] S. aurita prefers warm waters. It is a small pelagic species that lives in tropical and subtropical waters of the western and eastern Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Mediterranean and, occasionally, the Black Sea. The gonads start to develop in April and are fully mature one month later. Plankton in spawning regions are full of eggs and larva from the end of June into September.[3]

Diagnostic features[edit]

Sardinella aurita has a particularly elongate body, a relatively rounded belly, and a large number of fine gill rakers (up to 160). This is one of the largest Sardinella species, averaging 23 to 28cm. It has Sardinella eight pelvic fin rays. It has fronto-parietal stripes on the top of its head, a faint golden midlateral line, and a distinctive black spot on the hind border of the gill cover. It is often caught along with Sardinella longiceps, and the two are not easily distinguished.[1]

Habitat[edit]

The fish prefers shallower waters of around 24°C. It reaches depths of 350 m. It is a schooling fish that feeds on phytoplankton and zooplankton such as copepods.[1]

Fisheries[edit]

There are fisheries for this species off of the West African coast, in the Mediterranean Sea, and along the coasts of Venezuela and Brazil. Fishery numbers in 1983 totaled 1,983,000 tons.[1]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Whitehead, P. J.P.; G. J. Nelson, and T. Wongratana. (1988). Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). Rome: United Nations Development Programme. pp. 93–95. ISBN 92-5-102667-X. 
  2. ^ FAO Corporate Document Repository. "Report of the FAO Working Group on the Assessment of Small Pelagic Fish off Northwest Africa." Fisheries and Agriculture Department. 2006.
  3. ^ Sabate's, Ana; Paloma Marti'n; Josep Lloret; Vanesa Raya (2006). "Sea warming and fish distribution: the case of the small pelagic fish. Sardinella aurita, in the western Mediterranean". Global Change Biology 12: 2209–2219. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01246.x. Retrieved November 20, 2011. 
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